\
  The most prestigious law school admissions discussion board in the world.
BackRefreshOptions
Newest Message List
Re: I have no idea how people do office work for 40 yrsWhite Power HVAC, LLC.  07/16/18
Re: think I realized that "fitness exercise" over sports is utter and complete flamegoi toy  07/16/18
Re: Jokes aside, at what age should a child be taught how to shoot a gun?Toro XI  07/16/18
Re: Dr Federer & Mirka In Ibiza For Wimby Finals (PIC) #tennisDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerk.,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  07/16/18
Re: Flying J billboard: Every 10 gallons of diesel earns one peterman.MoreDoughHi  07/16/18
Re: the media is trying to sabotage Elon Musk 's future presidential runthis nigga eating memes!  07/16/18
Re: More important for Dr. Nadal this year: a fourth USO or a fifth YE #1? #tennisDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerk.,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  07/16/18
Re: Wiki is such a jokeJFC  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkcannon  07/16/18
Re: Jokes aside, at what age should a child be taught how to shoot a gun?God, Guns & Trump (Sen. Kid Rock R-MI)  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkJFC  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkscholarship community account  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerk.,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  07/16/18
Re: Jokes aside, at what age should a child be taught how to shoot a gun?spaceporn2525  07/16/18
Re: Need to make a car that runs off piss, shit and trashSci-Hub  07/16/18
Re: the media is trying to sabotage Elon Musk 's future presidential runslimp  07/16/18
Re: Anyone remember the MoreDoughHi thread where he bragged about beating a woman?HoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)  07/16/18
Re: Dr Federer & Mirka In Ibiza For Wimby Finals (PIC) #tennisToro XI  07/16/18
Re: Vermont law school revokes tenure for 75% of facultybiglaw associate asking if link is worksafe @ 11pm  07/16/18
Re: I'm running for Senate as a Republican. My Democrat parents are so furious they'lawman8  07/16/18
Re: the media is trying to sabotage Elon Musk 's future presidential runpedude  07/16/18
Re: Anyone remember the MoreDoughHi thread where he bragged about beating a woman?To be fair  07/16/18
Re: I have no idea how people do office work for 40 yrscorporate slave watching CLEs on mute  07/16/18
Re: filter for #tennis poasts?slimp  07/16/18
Re: More important for Dr. Nadal this year: a fourth USO or a fifth YE #1? #tennisToro XI  07/16/18
Re: Would you creampie fhia legal teen headed to mars?MoreDoughHi  07/16/18
Re: the media is trying to sabotage Elon Musk 's future presidential runthis nigga eating memes!  07/16/18
Re: Ocazia-Cortez is an hispanic identitarian, not a 'socialist'Maori woman performing defiant haka  07/16/18
Re: Anyone remember the MoreDoughHi thread where he bragged about beating a woman?HoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkcannon  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkGuy Debord  07/16/18
Re: think I realized that "fitness exercise" over sports is utter and complete flameDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerk\'\'\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\'\'\'  07/16/18
Re: filter for #tennis poasts?Toro XI  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkscholarship community account  07/16/18
Re: Lol at space teen going to mars because she was watching retarded cable tv at 3BOOM  07/16/18
Re: I have no idea how people do office work for 40 yrsWhite Power HVAC, LLC.  07/16/18
Re: Ocazia-Cortez is an hispanic identitarian, not a 'socialist'michael doodikoff  07/16/18
Re: Lol at space teen going to mars because she was watching retarded cable tv at 3BOOM  07/16/18
Re: filter for #tennis poasts?slimp  07/16/18
Re: I'm running for Senate as a Republican. My Democrat parents are so furious they'Maori woman performing defiant haka  07/16/18
Re: Anyone remember the MoreDoughHi thread where he bragged about beating a woman?To be fair  07/16/18
Re: More important for Dr. Nadal this year: a fourth USO or a fifth YE #1? #tennisDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: Anyone remember the MoreDoughHi thread where he bragged about beating a woman?HoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)  07/16/18
Re: Rate this gif (nsfw)zurich is stained (but it\'s not my fault)  07/16/18
Re: think I realized that "fitness exercise" over sports is utter and complete flamelarry  07/16/18
Re: Anyone remember the MoreDoughHi thread where he bragged about beating a woman?HoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)  07/16/18
Re: what is your plan to escape wagecuckery?zurich is stained (but it\'s not my fault)  07/16/18
Re: Ocazia-Cortez is an hispanic identitarian, not a 'socialist'.....;;,,.........;.;.;.;.,;,;,;.;.;,;  07/16/18
Re: Anyone remember the MoreDoughHi thread where he bragged about beating a woman?MoreDoughHi  07/16/18
Re: Anyone remember the MoreDoughHi thread where he bragged about beating a woman?HoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerk.,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  07/16/18
Re: Would you creampie fhia legal teen headed to mars?Sotomayor McCheese  07/16/18
Re: what is your plan to escape wagecuckery?pedude  07/16/18
Re: what is your plan to escape wagecuckery?pedude  07/16/18
Re: Wiki is such a jokeBOOM  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: what is your plan to escape wagecuckery?Non sequitur  07/16/18
Re: Dr Federer & Mirka In Ibiza For Wimby Finals (PIC) #tennisDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: think I realized that "fitness exercise" over sports is utter and complete flamegoi toy  07/16/18
Re: Would you creampie fhia legal teen headed to mars?BOOM  07/16/18
Re: More important for Dr. Nadal this year: a fourth USO or a fifth YE #1? #tennisToro XI  07/16/18
Re: Ocazia-Cortez is an hispanic identitarian, not a 'socialist'.....;;,,.........;.;.;.;.,;,;,;.;.;,;  07/16/18
Re: Anyone remember the MoreDoughHi thread where he bragged about beating a woman?boner police?  07/16/18
Re: I'm running for Senate as a Republican. My Democrat parents are so furious they'lawman8  07/16/18
Re: Struggling Paintball business in Miami-Dade allows customers to use .22s (Miamigrand arbre  07/16/18
Re: Its funny that age means none people have and gone people in 100s still aliveBOOM  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerk.,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  07/16/18
Re: Dr Federer & Mirka In Ibiza For Wimby Finals (PIC) #tennisToro XI  07/16/18
Re: Libs boycotting GERBER for CEO comment that tranny men cannot give birthSotomayor McCheese  07/16/18
Re: Neil Armstrong was 39 when he landed on the moongoi toy  07/16/18
Re: Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez discusses Israel/Palestine.beckersted.  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkzurich is stained (but it\'s not my fault)  07/16/18
Re: Dr Federer & Mirka In Ibiza For Wimby Finals (PIC) #tennisDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: Anyone remember the MoreDoughHi thread where he bragged about beating a woman?To be fair  07/16/18
Re: CNN: Pittsburgh Mayor member of NAMBLAgrand arbre  07/16/18
Re: Neil Armstrong was 39 when he landed on the moonBOOM  07/16/18
Re: Dr Federer & Mirka In Ibiza For Wimby Finals (PIC) #tennisToro XI  07/16/18
Re: Rate this Jewish Wapo Reporter walk his shit back in real timeTo be fair  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGt bone  07/16/18
Re: "just keep going; the blood will clot in a few minutes" (peterman)spritezero  07/16/18
Re: Neil Armstrong was 39 when he landed on the moonmichael doodikoff  07/16/18
Re: Neil Armstrong was 39 when he landed on the moonBOOM  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGIndrid Cold  07/16/18
Re: Jokes aside, at what age should a child be taught how to shoot a gun?slimp  07/16/18
Re: BlueSmoke notes Serena looks same as age 18, cites "Black don't crack" #tennisDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: White Power HVAC, LLC, link the beast site for one second.White Power HVAC, LLC.  07/16/18
Re: Neil Armstrong was 39 when he landed on the moonobesity of the mind  07/16/18
Re: Jokes aside, at what age should a child be taught how to shoot a gun?michael doodikoff  07/16/18
Re: BlueSmoke notes Serena looks same as age 18, cites "Black don't crack" #tennisToro XI  07/16/18
Re: $27,000 balloongrand arbre  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkguy who gets it  07/16/18
Re: what is your plan to escape wagecuckery?pedude  07/16/18
Re: What is market clerkship bonus? Is there a market rate?.,.,,..,.,,.,.,:,,:,..,,:::,...,:,.,.:...:.,:.::,.  07/16/18
Re: think I realized that "fitness exercise" over sports is utter and complete flameDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkboner police?  07/16/18
Re: Neil Armstrong was 39 when he landed on the moonBOOM  07/16/18
Re: *checks binance* *revises redfin parameters accordingly* *all houses disappear*united states poast office (retired)  07/16/18
Re: Kerber Guaranteed Into The Tennis HOF? #tennisToro XI  07/16/18
Re: At this rate we're going to be allies w/ Russia vs. the Red China war machineDrakeMallard  07/16/18
Re: what is your plan to escape wagecuckery?,.,...,..,.,.,:,.:,.,.,:::,...,:,.,.:.:.,:.::,  07/16/18
Re: White nationalist U.S.-Russia allianceCiroc Obama  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGt bone  07/16/18
Re: Remember when Libs were cozying up to Russia & telling us the Cold War was over?.,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkSir Incelot  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMING,.,.,.,.,,,,,.,,,;.,.,..,:.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkESL Wilbur  07/16/18
Re: Remember when Libs were cozying up to Russia & telling us the Cold War was over?DrakeMallard  07/16/18
Re: Pool man got in accident/insurance denied liability/popped it for 25K (CSLG)Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkJFC  07/16/18
Re: Jokes aside, at what age should a child be taught how to shoot a gun?boner police?  07/16/18
Re: What ever happened to guys who robbed Kim Kardashian in Paris & urinated on her?grand arbre  07/16/18
Re: Jokes aside, at what age should a child be taught how to shoot a gun?grand arbre  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerk,.,...,..,.,.,:,.:,.,.,:::,...,:,.,.:.:.,:.::,  07/16/18
Re: what is your plan to escape wagecuckery?grand arbre  07/16/18
Re: Lmao Putin standing next to Trump and attacking Soroscannon  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: Would you creampie fhia legal teen headed to mars?this nigga eating memes!  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGt bone  07/16/18
Re: what is your plan to escape wagecuckery?,.,.,.,..,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,.  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkSlime Wall Climber  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkslimp  07/16/18
Re: Trump just dumped a truckload of sand into Swamp journalist pussies.:D  07/16/18
Re: Would you creampie fhia legal teen headed to mars?.,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGDriving back in silence from retirement home  07/16/18
Re: lol at taking a young lib get in her 20s with hyphenated name seriouslyHoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGTaylor Swift is not a hobby she is a lifestyle  07/16/18
Re: tranny gf: *Clutched*; shrew GF: *clutches own bowels/slime*Driving back in silence from retirement home  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGt bone  07/16/18
Re: Impossible to get a really deep swimming pool. Like > 50 ftgrand arbre  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkthis nigga eating memes!  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: what is your plan to escape wagecuckery?pedude  07/16/18
Re: resist dormpfhtdHoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGcannon  07/16/18
Re: lol at taking a young lib get in her 20s with hyphenated name seriouslygrand arbre  07/16/18
Re: what is your plan to escape wagecuckery?Progression to the Mean  07/16/18
Re: Would you creampie fhia legal teen headed to mars?.,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGt bone  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkunited states poast office (retired)  07/16/18
Re: what is your plan to escape wagecuckery?grand arbre  07/16/18
Re: think I realized that "fitness exercise" over sports is utter and complete flamegoi toy  07/16/18
Re: what is your plan to escape wagecuckery?boner police?  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGBuck \"The Club\" Paulette  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGIndrid Cold  07/16/18
Re: Odds Ken Burns is crypto red-pilling audience with "Vietnam"?grand arbre  07/16/18
Re: what is your plan to escape wagecuckery?slimp  07/16/18
Re: Pool man got in accident/insurance denied liability/popped it for 25K (CSLG)calishitlawguru  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerk.,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkthis nigga eating memes!  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGt bone  07/16/18
Re: what is your plan to escape wagecuckery?pedude  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGcannon  07/16/18
Re: Rate this Jewish Wapo Reporter walk his shit back in real timeguy who gets it  07/16/18
Re: Rate my kid's first birthday set up (CSLG)calishitlawguru  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGt bone  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGBuck \"The Club\" Paulette  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGt bone  07/16/18
Re: Pool man got in accident/insurance denied liability/popped it for 25K (CSLG)Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: Would you creampie fhia legal teen headed to mars?BOOM  07/16/18
Re: Remember when libs were decent people?honiara  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkbeckersted.  07/16/18
Re: lol at taking a young lib get in her 20s with hyphenated name seriouslyJFC  07/16/18
Re: Rate my kid's first birthday set up (CSLG)....::::..::..,,....,........,..,,,,,.  07/16/18
Re: think I realized that "fitness exercise" over sports is utter and complete flame:D  07/16/18
Re: $27,000 balloontypical lib pundit  07/16/18
Re: RATE this HuffPo tweet re Trump Tape (link)cannon  07/16/18
Re: think I realized that "fitness exercise" over sports is utter and complete flameboner police?  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerk.,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkscholarship community account  07/16/18
Re: think I realized that "fitness exercise" over sports is utter and complete flame.....;;,,.........;.;.;.;.,;,;,;.;.;,;  07/16/18
Re: will next generation of libspawn have four hyphenated surnames? and then eight?grand arbre  07/16/18
Re: Libs boycotting GERBER for CEO comment that tranny men cannot give birthslimp  07/16/18
Re: the genocidal leftboner police?  07/16/18
Re: Whoa Trump is speaking fluent Russian at this press conference. Also a red tiesmell the glove  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGDrakeMallard  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGTaylor Swift is not a hobby she is a lifestyle  07/16/18
Re: Rate my kid's first birthday set up (CSLG)calishitlawguru  07/16/18
Re: lol at taking a young lib get in her 20s with hyphenated name seriouslygrand arbre  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerk.,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  07/16/18
Re: Dr Federer & Mirka In Ibiza For Wimby Finals (PIC) #tennisDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkJFC  07/16/18
Re: Pool man got in accident/insurance denied liability/popped it for 25K (CSLG)calishitlawguru  07/16/18
Re: Libs boycotting GERBER for CEO comment that tranny men cannot give birthgrand arbre  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkSir Incelot  07/16/18
Re: Need to make a car that runs off piss, shit and trashBOOM  07/16/18
Re: resist dormpfhtdslimp  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGYours For The Revolution  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGTaylor Swift is not a hobby she is a lifestyle  07/16/18
Re: $27,000 balloonESL Wilbur  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMING*A poaster\'s wounded pride*  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGYours For The Revolution  07/16/18
Re: Remember when libs were decent people?loans originated on or after July 1, 2018,  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGt bone  07/16/18
Re: Mike Bryan Hits 455 Weeks At #1 #tennisDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: Remember when libs were decent people?Bedroom Bully  07/16/18
Re: $27,000 balloon,.,.,.,..,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,.  07/16/18
Re: will next generation of libspawn have four hyphenated surnames? and then eight?slimp  07/16/18
Re: reminder: if you don't vape youre a bottomboner police?  07/16/18
Re: Whoa Trump is speaking fluent Russian at this press conference. Also a red tieDrakeMallard  07/16/18
Re: *checks binance* *revises redfin parameters accordingly* *all houses disappear*typical lib pundit  07/16/18
Re: resist dormpfhtdboner police?  07/16/18
Re: Reminder: Politics literally mean shit...typical lib pundit  07/16/18
Re: think I realized that "fitness exercise" over sports is utter and complete flamegoi toy  07/16/18
Re: Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez discusses Israel/Palestine.Bedroom Bully  07/16/18
Re: Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez discusses Israel/Palestine.:D  07/16/18
Re: lol at taking a young lib get in her 20s with hyphenated name seriouslyProgression to the Mean  07/16/18
Re: hey did you guys hear about the politics this weekend?MoreDoughHi  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGcannon  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGBoichester United  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGDrakeMallard  07/16/18
Re: what are some prestigious medium/smaller citiesMoreDoughHi  07/16/18
Re: hey did you guys hear about the politics this weekend?slimp  07/16/18
Re: Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez discusses Israel/Palestine.Sir Incelot  07/16/18
Re: what are some prestigious medium/smaller citiesESL TM..,..;;.  07/16/18
Re: *checks binance* *revises redfin parameters accordingly* *all houses disappear*ESL Wilbur  07/16/18
Re: lol at taking a young lib get in her 20s with hyphenated name seriouslyHoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)  07/16/18
Re: Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez discusses Israel/Palestine.Sir Incelot  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGt bone  07/16/18
Re: Reminder: Politics literally mean shit...BOOM  07/16/18
Re: what are some prestigious medium/smaller citiesSotomayor McCheese  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkslimp  07/16/18
Re: Need to make a car that runs off piss, shit and trashSexually frustrated male poasting into the void  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGESL TM..,..;;.  07/16/18
Re: lol at taking a young lib get in her 20s with hyphenated name seriouslyBOOM  07/16/18
Re: Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez discusses Israel/Palestine.Sir Incelot  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMINGHoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)  07/16/18
Re: Need to make a car that runs off piss, shit and trashMoreDoughHi  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerkESL Wilbur  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP PUTIN PRESS CONFERENCE UPCOMING*A poaster\'s wounded pride*  07/16/18
Re: Boi Next Door (Pics)Versace Nigga Fuck Piece (No L\'s)  07/16/18
Re: Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez discusses Israel/Palestine.Thanks Mario! But our partner is in another castle  07/16/18
Re: RATE Justice Sotomayor's future law clerktypical lib pundit  07/16/18
Re: Need to make a car that runs off piss, shit and trashBOOM  07/16/18
Re: Kerber Guaranteed Into The Tennis HOF? #tennisDjavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon  07/16/18
Re: Ocazia-Cortez is an hispanic identitarian, not a 'socialist'Sir Incelot  07/16/18
Re: Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez discusses Israel/Palestine.Such anathema to us!  07/16/18
Re: TRUMP: "The US acted stupidly"ESL TM..,..;;.  07/16/18

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:14 PM
Author: White Power HVAC, LLC.

yeah i had a quarter life crisis when i was coming up on 31 and realized i had spent 25-30, my physical prime, in a cube farm

and the fuckers didn't even make me a director

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:14 PM
Author: goi toy

Explain how you can adequately understand periodization and training cycles with an hour of research?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:13 PM
Author: Toro XI

high schools should have mandatory firearms training, if for no other reason than to teach safety and help prevent accident deaths

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:13 PM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


couldnt find :(

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:13 PM
Author: .,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

https://law.vanderbilt.edu/academics/academic-programs/constitutional-law/ali-square.JPG

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:13 PM
Author: MoreDoughHi



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:13 PM
Author: this nigga eating memes!

we need someone who is rich enough to be independent, a destroyer of the status quo...zuck COULD be that person...musk is a much better choice...

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:13 PM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


because it seems that slam count is slam count to a greater extent than #1 stats are #1 stats.

hewitt squeezing out back-to-back #1s gets less respect than someone who has won weak era slams, for example.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:13 PM
Author: .,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

cr

https://law.vanderbilt.edu/academics/academic-programs/constitutional-law/ali-square.JPG

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:13 PM
Author: JFC



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:13 PM
Author: cannon



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:13 PM
Author: God, Guns & Trump (Sen. Kid Rock R-MI)(Magic Hat)


Depending on the child between 5 and 7 with a BB gun. Then ramp it up to a pellet gun, then a single shot 22.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:13 PM
Author: JFC

cr other than her girth

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:12 PM
Author: scholarship community account

She’s not Jewish

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:12 PM
Author: .,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

Same one?

'More American'

Samiyyah Ali, 17, grew up in Altanta and describes herself as a practicing Muslim, rather than an observant one. She uses the principles of Islam to guide her, but doesn't worry about following every last tenet. Like 20 percent of American Muslims, she is African-American. Her parents converted to Islam before she was born.

Other than her name, there's not much about Samiyyah that would tell a stranger she is Muslim. She's a senior at Westminster Academy, a coed private school where she's a cheerleader, on the varsity track and field team, in the dance club, and on the school newspaper staff. And she does date.

She views the Koran as something that should not be followed literally, much like other historical documents that should be understood in context. "A lot of stuff is still applicable—honor and respect is always applicable," says Samiyyah. "But other things that are cultural—even ideas about sex—need to be taken in context. Back then people got married when they were 14...Maybe because my family is a convert family, we're just not so orthodox."

http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10861

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:12 PM
Author: spaceporn2525

8.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:12 PM
Author: Sci-Hub

Will the model be called Peterman?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:12 PM
Author: slimp

you like the idea of zuck as president?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:12 PM
Author: HoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:12 PM
Author: Toro XI

looking for a recent one. thnak

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:11 PM
Author: biglaw associate asking if link is worksafe @ 11pm(LM95)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:11 PM
Author: lawman8

This guy was actually elected National President of the College Democrats of America.

Other brainwashed libs should take note.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:11 PM
Author: pedude
Subject: musk wants to be president?


link?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:11 PM
Author: To be fair(Semi-Retired)


To be fair,

Oh I'm real gud to meat IRL u little minx

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:11 PM
Author: corporate slave watching CLEs on mute

Time goes faster and faster the longer you do something that is the same. I swore I wouldn't he doing this shit for long and I'm 33 now and deeper in it than ever. And months flyyyy by.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:11 PM
Author: slimp

lol i would like to filter them OUT.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:11 PM
Author: Toro XI

why would a weak era USO be more meaningful than a weak era YE #1?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:11 PM
Author: MoreDoughHi

if science requires it for mankind who am i to refuse?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:11 PM
Author: this nigga eating memes!

like zuckerberg, musk wants to be president, and he has the money and public profile to get it if he wants...the media has learned to fear people like zuck and musk...trump taught them that..

the media is trying to sabotage him now...just like they have been trying to sabotage zuck.

I like musk and zuck better than anyone to get to the white house after trump...I also like Steve King, Congressman from iowa, as well as kris kobach, but I don't think either one has what it takes when it comes to money...or charisma...

trump's money and charisma is what got him the win...

zuck or musk could be just the loose cannon we need...and they could win... I like musk a lot more than zuck, however...he has more charisma and enough money...

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:11 PM
Author: Maori woman performing defiant haka

Shes a moron but spoiled brat minority millennials who want to overcompensate for growing up rich will become very dangerous if empowered

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:11 PM
Author: HoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)

lol yes,
but u seem 2 unhinged 2 meat irl

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:11 PM
Author: cannon

Looks like Malia Obama if she gained a ton of weight

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:11 PM
Author: Guy Debord



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:10 PM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


they can be learned with an hour of research

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:10 PM
Author: \'\'\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\'\'\'

Good credentials. Good clerkship. Article seemed well written. What's the problem?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:10 PM
Author: Toro XI

just search for "tennis" and they will all come up

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:10 PM
Author: scholarship community account

Yea there is - coif. No less than top 10% and likely higher. And she got a very difficult clerkship given how popular Sri is.

You just draw every single inference against her because she’s a minority.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:10 PM
Author: BOOM

Inspired by Nickelodeon animated TV show The Backyardigans, she decided at age 3 that she wanted to travel to Mars.[1]

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:10 PM
Author: White Power HVAC, LLC.

was bending conduit Friday, it's really an art
it's like sculpting except more useful

get to work with chill bros that are all get laid, unlike rich programmer incels

i like to travel to different job sites, being outdoors

AND THE NUMBER ONE THING THE IS THERE IS ALWAYS A CLEAR GOAL. I mean people don't just get electrical work done for a reason other than needing to bring electricity from one place to another

no microsoft office fire drills

worst case scenario people get really anal about worksmanship, but there's no sense of running wire, digging it up, and then running a different kind of wire so your boss would have something to brag to his boss about. THERE IS ALWAYS A CLEAR, WELL UNDERSTOOD GOAL.

also lot's of exercise, and you don't have to check e-mail all the time. since it's a lot of exercise, as with other forms of manual labor you don't have to work 12 hours a day and if you do, you're in time and a half over 8 and if you can somehow stay standing after 80 hours in a week you are in double time

on a holiday you can get into triple time, for an industrial electrician this can be $120/hr

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:09 PM
Author: michael doodikoff



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:09 PM
Author: BOOM
Subject: Lol


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Armstrong

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:09 PM
Author: slimp



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:09 PM
Author: Maori woman performing defiant haka

Leaving the Democratic plantation is the only warranted use of "so brave"

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:09 PM
Author: To be fair(Semi-Retired)


To be fair,

I didn't ask for a link, I just asked if anyone else shared this memory.

Want to make a new memory with your cock in my mouth?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:09 PM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


a 1st WTF, then a 2nd AO

to answer ur q, USO. desperately needs more non-mudfraud slams to dispel the notion that he's a one-spic pony.

back to back weak-era #1s arent going to do so much for his legacy.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:08 PM
Author: HoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:08 PM
Author: zurich is stained (but it\'s not my fault)(Jordan Peterson’s Fans are Massive Faggots with Daddy Issues)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:08 PM
Author: larry

Do you check your phone constantly between sets? I started going **no phone** while I workout. It helps

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:08 PM
Author: HoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)

So we should, you CUNT?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:08 PM
Author: zurich is stained (but it\'s not my fault)(Jordan Peterson’s Fans are Massive Faggots with Daddy Issues)


i need you to fuck my ass

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:08 PM
Author: .....;;,,.........;.;.;.;.,;,;,;.;.;,;

Being a congresswoman from an 80% district isn't that hard. There are a bunch of guys who do that, cheatmo their asses off and continue running a company that employs a shitload of people. The problem for her is that she has the national spotlight now and seems to enjoy it, so there will be more expectations and scrutiny from the media.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:08 PM
Author: MoreDoughHi

you're unhinged.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:08 PM
Author: HoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)

Date: July 16th, 2018 12:02 PM
Author: To be fair (Semi-Retired)

To be fair,

I don't have a link and I'm not wasting my time searching for one,

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:08 PM
Author: .,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

Samiyyah Ali won the Expanding the Boundaries of Learning Award.

https://today.duke.edu/2010/05/studawards.html

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:08 PM
Author: Sotomayor McCheese

mmmm, yeah, definitely hard

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:08 PM
Author: pedude

keep fighting the good fight, brother man

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:07 PM
Author: pedude

LOL

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:07 PM
Author: BOOM

All kinds of retards have pages

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:07 PM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:07 PM
Author: Non sequitur

Get a job at cutting edge intersection of technology, business and law and be a valued resource to my business clients, just like TMF

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:07 PM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


best i got

https://www.tennisworldusa.org/tennis/news/Roger_Federer/41943/roger-federer-and-his-wife-mirka-at-the-beach-see-the-pics/

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:06 PM
Author: goi toy

ah yes, those "simple" concepts that literally 95% of people fuck up

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:06 PM
Author: BOOM

She’s an adult to fuck and pound hard... we’re taking the south And she’s nearly 18

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:05 PM
Author: Toro XI



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:05 PM
Author: .....;;,,.........;.;.;.;.,;,;,;.;.;,;

This is scholarship and it happens with model minorities as well but at a lesser rate, presumably because model minorities have all been filtered for IQ and some amount of the resiliency you need to survive as a white collar worker (e.g. navigating complicated paperwork and managing deadlines, etc.). This is why libs need to risk attacking UMC URMs to enable the pivot to class. AA is for these people and wealthy/UMC white women. It's a huge waste of the nation's productive capacity.

I will say, though, that the URMs in the burbs doing this are more sympathetic to me because they're mourning the loss of a sense of community. Model minorities of course miss their country of origin, but seem to have more infrastructure for establishing new communities, and that makes sense for a full-on immigrants. You committed to change your life in this way to give your family opportunity and your old life isn't a 30 minute drive away. Model minorities just have some number of kids who can't cut it in college or as wage cucks. Black and brown people in the burbs have a bigger struggle with expending effort toward assimilation (and dealing with the resulting emotions) v. expending effort toward developing a community that reflects their values and upbringing that they want to pass down to their kids. This is why, if I was a URM UMC, I'd be gunning hard to start a business and get out of wagecucking. There's risk in being an entrepreneur that wagecucking avoids but there's way more psychic benefit. The problem is that it's hard to control costs and give yourself the best platform to stop wagecucking without going way out in the burbs and living in even whiter areas that increase the challenge of building out a community.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:05 PM
Author: boner police?



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:05 PM
Author: lawman8

I'm running for Senate as a Republican. My Democrat parents are so furious they're backing my opponent

By Kevin Nicholson | Fox News

My decision to be a Democrat was never a decision. It was just expected of me. It was understood. Born into a family of Democrats, my grandfather would often spend weekends talking to me about his respect for Franklin Roosevelt and his annoyance with President Reagan. I listened and absorbed, but was not yet ready to think critically about what I was told – or to decide for myself.

I love and miss my grandfather, but life has since taught me that thinking critically about the principles of the Democrat party is never encouraged because if you do, you have no choice but to leave – to walk away.

I was elected National President of the College Democrats of America in 1999, and now I’m a Republican candidate for U.S. Senate in 2018. While the Democrats’ influence over my political philosophy defined a few years in my late teens and early twenties, that influence could not withstand the test of life and experience that made me a conservative as an adult. In contrast with my time as a Democrat, my evolution to becoming a conservative Republican was a fully mindful and deliberate decision, based on my life experiences that left me with no other option.

While my choice was made clear to me through the experience of my marriage, the birth of my three children, my acceptance of Jesus Christ as my savior, my time fighting in two wars, and my experience in business since leaving the Marine Corps, it came at personal cost.

My parents have since turned their back on me, my wife, their grandchildren, and their extended family. Adding to this, they decided to make the maximum contribution to my Democrat opponent in my campaign for U.S. Senate in Wisconsin, an intentional personal blow that made headlines across the country. It was deliberate – and it is a true representation of the intolerance of a political philosophy that stands on the false platform of tolerance.

I don’t enjoy talking about this highly personal experience, but as I see the #WalkAway movement gain momentum, I feel compelled to share my story. As #WalkAway grows, conservatives need to reach out to those who were raised to believe in a Democrat Party and a liberal political philosophy that does nothing to make them more successful.

Many others who have decided to leave the Democrat Party have also likely paid a personal price for their decision. And others are not yet ready to leave because of the judgement and ridicule they will undoubtedly receive from other Democrats – whether family, friends, or co-workers. Unfortunately, their fear is founded.

The Democrat party is not the party of tolerance. It is not the party of acceptance. It is the party of intolerance. It is the party of closed doors, but open borders. It is the party of judgement. It is the party of identity politics. And that is why the #WalkAway movement is resonating. Because when you stop and ask yourself why you should be a Democrat, it is impossible to answer if you acknowledge the party’s hypocrisy, since it openly advocates for policies that encourage dependency and destroy opportunity for all of us.

As we look to the future, conservatives must aggressively reach out and welcome those who were not born into conservative families. We must continue to champion the dignity of all human life, conserve and strategically invest our financial resources, and work to build a strong defense that secures our nation’s prosperity for all. This is how I will win my election against Tammy Baldwin in Wisconsin this November, and also how we will win the future of this nation.

During my Senate race, I have learned that some establishment Republican circles are reluctant to accept new members to our party. Too many believe that they have a club that they control – and would like to keep it that way since it keeps them in power. Those who demand that people be Republicans from birth in order to have a voice in the conservative movement would shrink, not grow our party. And their short-sighted perspective on people’s ability to mature as they experience life would keep us from bringing new Republicans into the fold, like Donald Trump has done. We need to push beyond these voices, and welcome new conservatives in order to secure our nation’s future.

If you’ve decided to #WalkAway or plan to, I encourage you to find strength in those who have already walked the path. Find strength in the principles of conservatism that are founded in faith, liberty, and the Constitution. And find strength in those who have walked the path before you: President Ronald Reagan, President Donald Trump, Vice President Mike Pence, former U.S. Senator Phil Gramm – and so many others. Find strength in our decision to choose to believe in the human capacity to succeed when free, as you do the same.

Kevin Nicholson is a decorated Marine Corps veteran who served combat tours in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Following his time in the Marine Corps, he earned a joint degree at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government (Master of Public Administration) and Dartmouth’s Tuck School of Business (Master of Business Administration). He then worked for McKinsey & Co., and now works for ghSmart as a business consultant. He is a first-time candidate in the Wisconsin Republican primary for U.S. Senate.

http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2018/07/16/im-running-for-senate-as-republican-my-democrat-parents-are-so-furious-theyre-backing-my-opponent.html

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:04 PM
Author: grand arbre



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:04 PM
Author: BOOM



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:04 PM
Author: .,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

M.A., 2012, The Ohio State University
A.B., 2010, Duke University

oh what a scholar?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:04 PM
Author: Toro XI

Pls find one. Thank.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:03 PM
Author: Sotomayor McCheese

but tranny "men" can give birth

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:03 PM
Author: goi toy

all of those test pilot guys had gigantic balls

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:03 PM
Author: beckersted.

i imagine her opinion on PR will run contrary to all established fact on the island since 1952. i'm sure she has an albizu campos shirt in her collection.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:03 PM
Author: zurich is stained (but it\'s not my fault)(Jordan Peterson’s Fans are Massive Faggots with Daddy Issues)


ya'll old school, we new school.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:03 PM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:03 PM
Author: To be fair(Semi-Retired)


To be fair,

Asking for a friend:

http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=4027095&forum_id=2#36436225

As I recall this was several years ago and allegedly took place in Miami.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:03 PM
Author: grand arbre



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:03 PM
Author: BOOM

He died in recovery from surgery

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:03 PM
Author: Toro XI

i was hoping for a Mirka bikini pic so we could evaluate her slightly slimmer bod

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:02 PM
Author: To be fair(Semi-Retired)


To be fair,

I don't have a link and I'm not wasting my time searching for one, but I have a very distinct memory of a highly disturbing thread from several years ago where you bragged about brutally beating and sexually assaulting a random woman in Miami. I'll post a separate thread about it--if no other longtime XO sudos recall that, then I'll retract this particular claim. Otherwise STFU.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:02 PM
Author: t bone(ggtp)


lmao

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:02 PM
Author: spritezero



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:02 PM
Author: michael doodikoff

can you imagine how many times he was exposed to crazy radio waves, toxic gases, radioactive shit, etc? The entire 1960s and 70s space program was fly by the seat of your pants shit 24/7

the fact that he lived to old age is reassuring.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:01 PM
Author: BOOM

Yeah I guess although “Time” doesn’t exist

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:01 PM
Author: Indrid Cold

Acosta, Cooper, Amanpour losing their shit

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:01 PM
Author: slimp



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:01 PM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:00 PM
Author: White Power HVAC, LLC.

did you enjoy your cheese pizza last night? I'm convinced cheese is a natural anxiolytic, which is why new yorkers are so into it


(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:00 PM
Author: obesity of the mind

Died of old age not long ago. Shit goes quick.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:00 PM
Author: michael doodikoff

start young like age 7, heavily supervised with a bb gun. When they hit 10 or 11yo bump it up to supervised .22 target shooting.

Your mileage may vary after that.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:00 PM
Author: Toro XI

BS: "See, at age 50 she's the exact same 3 she always was"

Ironside: "RIDICULOUS Serena trolling"

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:00 PM
Author: grand arbre



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:00 PM
Author: guy who gets it(donny)


she got order of coif with no latin honors?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:00 PM
Author: pedude

this is my back, back, backup plan

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 12:00 PM
Author: .,.,,..,.,,.,.,:,,:,..,,:::,...,:,.,.:...:.,:.::,.



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:59 AM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


it's almost like the concepts are so simple that any grown man should know them, and most "trainers" are morons whose goal is to make you dependent on them and waste your money

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:59 AM
Author: boner police?

very impressive that she was able to balance her academic work in LS along with being a starting defensive tackle for Vandy

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:59 AM
Author: BOOM

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Armstrong

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:59 AM
Author: united states poast office (retired)(uspo)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:59 AM
Author: Toro XI

i think that's unfair personally. she has been the best overall vs her competition.

i think the biggest knock is how long she's hung on and how weak the competition has been since about 2010 or so.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:58 AM
Author: DrakeMallard(Let's get dangerous)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:58 AM
Author: ,.,...,..,.,.,:,.:,.,.,:::,...,:,.,.:.:.,:.::,

Savecuck for 10 years and use the savings to buy investment properties. Become slumlord.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:58 AM
Author: Ciroc Obama(d/b/a Ciroc Obama)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:58 AM
Author: t bone(ggtp)


lol Trump going after Strzok in his closing remarks

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:58 AM
Author: .,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

http://www.tedkennedy.org/ownwords/event/cold_war.html

Ending the Cold War with a Nuclear Freeze
June 4, 1983 | Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island
More About This Topic
Original Text as Distributed to the Press

Every generation has its own mission in the life of the nation. Your generation may well be the peace generation, because the issue of nuclear war or peace will in all likelihood be settled by you.

Twenty years ago, in Washington, President Kennedy called for a treaty to ban nuclear tests -- as the first step in a strategy of peace to ban nuclear war.

The words he spoke then ring now with a timeless truth. Despite loose talk today about a nuclear warning shot and a winnable nuclear conflict, we know the abiding truth of his warning then that "total war makes no sense" in this age. And so we insist once more as clearly as we can that there is no such thing as a limited nuclear war.

Yet some government officials continue to plan for one. Not long ago an expert on the National Security Council foresaw a 40 percent probability of such a conflict. And a Deputy Under Secretary of Defense said that all we need to survive is a shovel to dig a hole and a pile of dirt on top to keep out the fallout.

Recently we discovered that the Post Office is actually preparing change of a address cards to be filled out in the event of a nuclear attack. They have a plan to deliver all the mail right after the holocaust. But even the Postal Service cannot deliver to that address. Rain and snow and sleet may not stay their appointed rounds -- but I think that a nuclear war probably will.

Some officials in Washington are also talking about a civil defense scheme to evacuate all our major cities, which would require a week's advance warning of an impending Soviet attack. What are the Russians supposed to think, if their spy satellites suddenly see streams of cars pouring out of Providence, crawling along Route 95, heading for the beaches of Newport and Point Judith?

Despite such plans despite the escalation of bellicose rhetoric from the centers of power in both of the most powerful nations, we must learn to live in peace with the Soviet Union. We dare not misuse what is wrong in the Soviet system as an excuse for denying what is right in Soviet-American relations -- which is the overriding imperative of nuclear arms control. No government should be regarded as so much of an "evil empire" as to justify reckless policies which could subjugate the world to the permanent evil empire of radioactive death. We must demand a national leadership which will spend less time preparing for nuclear war and more time preventing one.

There is no morality in the mushroom cloud. The black rain will fall equally on the just and the unjust. And the world that is left in the ashes of Armageddon will little note nor long remember which was the evil empire.

At one of the forums this afternoon, Dr. John Pastore, of the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, will discuss the medical consequences of this ultimate confrontation. I have seen the nuclear threat up close in a place where it became all too real. I have stood in Hiroshima. I have talked to the survivors of that first nuclear holocaust. They speak of a blinding light, a burning wind, the cries of the injured, heard but not heeded. And anyone who stands in that spot or who hears Dr. Pastore and understands the threat, must make a commitment to do all that must be done to see that it shall never happen again.

So I do not agree with the advice that citizens must not offer an alternative because it will undermine the present negotiations. That is what other Administrations have said in their effort to mute dissent in other dark days on other difficult issues. And in the case of Vietnam, tens of thousands of Americans and hundreds of thousands of Vietnamese died before the lesson was learned that the answer to failure is not more of the same.

Our strategy of peace must be based on a realistic assessment of our relationship with the Soviet Union. For too long, we have strayed between two misconceptions about the Russians -- between overblown illusions of cooperation and overstated notions of confrontation. An arms control treaty will not tame Soviet misconduct in other areas. And the refusal to negotiate such an agreement, even when it is in our national interest, will not free Afghanistan, or break the repression in Poland, or stop the flow of arms to Central America. In short, we cannot punish the Russians by raising the risk of nuclear war. We hear about linkage, but we must not forget our fundamental common link as people on this planet -- that we shall all live and die together.

We do not fear economic competition or ideological rivalry with the Soviet Union. We believe in individual enterprise and human liberty, and with inspired leadership, that belief can have the most powerful appeal, as it has in the past, to the rest of the world. How many immigrants have ever moved to the Soviet Union in search of a better life?

The one place where the Russians know they can compete is military power -- and they will pay any price to prevent us from forcing them into a position of military inferiority. We can and we should maintain strategic parity -- which requires a sufficient and a secure deterrent. We can and we should strengthen our conventional forces so that we can avoid reliance on nuclear retaliation during a crisis.

But for both great powers, arms control is a far saner way to preserve strategic parity than an endless arms race. Despite the differences which divide the United States and the Soviet Union today, and which will divide us for years or generations to come, what must unite us is an unflagging determination to avoid nuclear annihilation. We must seek to maintain our freedom and the peace at the same time -- for there will be no such thing as liberty in a lifeless land.

Both sides today are at essential nuclear parity. Even in the unlikely event that a Soviet first strike destroyed all our land-based missiles, we would still have 3,500 warheads on our submarines and our bombers -- enough to destroy every Soviet city and town seven times over. The United States has the capacity to make the Soviet rubble bounce all the way from Moscow to Vladivostok -- and the Soviets can make our rubble bounce all the way from Providence to the Pacific.

A year ago, a number of us in Congress took up a cause and a challenge that had already stirred at the grassroots across the country. We called for an immediate, mutual and verifiable freeze between the United States and the Soviet Union on the testing, production, and deployment of nuclear weapons.

The opponents of the freeze contend that we cannot halt the arms race in the face of the continuing Soviet build-up. But in fact, a bilateral freeze is the best way to prevent that build-up. It would halt the entire new generation of weapons which the Soviets are now developing, including the Blackjack bomber, the Typhoon submarine, cruise and land-based mobile missiles. The cries of alarm about Soviet advances in the future amount to a compelling reason to freeze the present balance of forces -- and to stop the threatening trends now.

The Administration prefers to respond instead with an American nuclear weapons build-up. But you do not have to be an Isaac Newton understand that for every American action in the arms race, there will be an equal and opposite Soviet reaction. The lesson of the past generation is that the Soviets will match our escalation step by step -- bomber for bomber, missile for missile, warhead for warhead. And so we drift, as Einstein said, toward unparalleled catastrophe.

Our opponents also say that a freeze may be impossible to verify. But impartial experts have testified again and again that a freeze is at least as verifiable -- and probably more so -- than other arms control agreements, including the President's own START proposal. Moreover, we have made it clear from the beginning that anything which cannot be verified will not be frozen. We do not advocate a freeze because we trust the Russians. But we do distrust those who would continue the arms race at any and all costs.

ANd there are also opponents of the nuclear freeze who explain that they favor reductions instead. But there is a darker side to their slogan. Reductions are not all they want. While professing limits on older weapons, they want no limits on the newest and most modern weapons -- which are also the costliest and the most threatening.

For example, the Administration's START proposal for reductions would still permit us to build the B-1 bomber -- which is nothing more than a supersonic Edsel in the sky. And it would also permit the unrestrained pursuit of their star Wars scheme for outer space -- which would open another trip wire for nuclear war.

This really is a very strange idea. We cannot found national policy on fond memories of radio serials, dreams of the Old West, and the thrilling days of yesteryear. We must reject the preposterous notion of a Lone Ranger in the sky, firing silver laser bullets and shooting missiles out of the hands of Soviet outlaws.

The best defense against nuclear war is arms control and then disarmament.

The Administration answers that we need the treat of new weapons as bargaining chips and to close the window of vulnerability. Last year the President claimed we were vulnerable because the Russians could hit and destroy our existing Minuteman silos. So he appointed a commission which reviewed every conceivable solution to the problem of Minuteman silos. It's like having a car that is getting wet because of a leaky garage roof -- and then trying to solve the problem by changing the make of the car.

MX is a missile without a mission and weapon without a home. It is time to say "No" to this latest incarnation of nuclear madness -- it is time to say MX is a mistake.

Frankly, the more I hear from the Administration about the MX missile, the more I feel like standing up on the Senate floor and reciting "Jabberwocky."

Support for a nuclear weapons freeze does not mean that we seek a weaker America. We have watched in recent weeks as ministers of the Gospel have been urged to preach in favor of an escalating arms race. But in the Scriptures I have read, nowhere does it say: "Blessed are the warmakers and the munition manufacturers." We have witnessed the revival of McCarthyite tactics which equate dissent with disloyalty -- and which imply that the advocates of a freeze are somehow or other dupes or pawns. But someone should tell the apostles of this reincarnated Red Scare that the freeze movement is as American as Massachusetts and Rhode Island, which is where it all began.

Support for the freeze does not mean opposition to a strong national defense. I favor a real growth of five percent in the military budget to assure readiness and reliability. The President is demanding twice as much. But we cannot afford military waste which weakens the nation -- and which has subverted the national consensus for a sustained improvement in our forces, especially our conventional capability. Instead of lavishing our treasure on first strike weapons, let us spend it on first class schools and first class colleges for our students.

And let us never forget that national security includes the condition of our society as well as the size of our missiles. The world in an arms race is also a world impoverished. For America, running that arms race cripples our capacity to do anything else.

Two months after his Inauguration in 1953, President Eisenhower said: "Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed."

Today we are cutting immunization for children in order to purchase the weapons that may someday kill them. Every new shelter for a missile means fewer homes for our families. Every new warhead guidance system that can read enemy defenses means more pupils who will not learn to read. Every new escalation that could mean death at an early age across the earth also darkens the golden years of our senior citizens now.

We hear rhetoric from our highest officials about eliminating budgetary waste. If they are serious, let them enter into a nuclear freeze; let them pursue nuclear reductions; let them eliminated the expenditures that now make a desert of our dreams -- and that someday could make a cold wasteland of all the earth.

In closing, let me say something special to each of you are students here, and to all those of your age who share the high ideals of this occasion. The conscience, the caring, the commitment that you and your generation bring to the nuclear issue can help to determine the direction of our country and even the fate of the earth.

Others before you have faced a similar test. The young were there in the 1960's, in the forefront of the fight for civil rights and the struggle against the Vietnam War. In the 1970's, your older sisters and brothers summoned America to protect the priceless heritage of our environment, and to provide equality for the majority of our people who are women.

Now in the 1980's, a moment of history and a sense of hope call your generation to work as great as any that has gone before -- the work of peace. The challenge comes with special warning now because the danger has become so present and so clear. The difference each of you can make, if all of you try, may mean the difference between peace and war, between a just society and a garrison state.

What happens at Brown and in the many other colleges and communities of America is of enduring importance for the future of our nation. You did not make the world you live in, but you have the chance to change it.

Twenty years ago this week, when President Kennedy spoke for a nuclear test ban treaty, it was a day very much like this, at a commencement at American University.

On that occasion, he pointed to the interests that unite all human beings everywhere:

"We all inhabit this small planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children's future. And we are all mortal."

I know how much my brother Jack cherished John's future -- and how proud he would be if he could be here today. And he would be proud as well that so many of you continue to share his faith that public involvement is an honorable and worthy adventure.



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:57 AM
Author: Sir Incelot

Unforunately, so long as AA exists, most people will assume this.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:57 AM
Author: ,.,.,.,.,,,,,.,,,;.,.,..,:.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.

Yeah, and Putin's there too.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:57 AM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


what's the cutoff for latin honors at vandy?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:57 AM
Author: ESL Wilbur(Short Pride World Wide)


I did not comment on the reason she was picked, I commented on her heft

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:57 AM
Author: DrakeMallard(Let's get dangerous)


https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/obama-scraps-bush-missile-defense-plan/story?id=8604357

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:56 AM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:56 AM
Author: JFC

???

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:56 AM
Author: boner police?

never

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:56 AM
Author: grand arbre

waiting on that update sir

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:55 AM
Author: grand arbre



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:55 AM
Author: ,.,...,..,.,.,:,.:,.,.,:::,...,:,.,.:.:.,:.::,

No latin honors? Sad!

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:55 AM
Author: grand arbre

you didnt specify that it had to be realistic. anyway, im trying.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:54 AM
Author: cannon

CNN is going to have a meltdown

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:54 AM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


being able to write a coherent 1L legal memo is the threshold for a lesbian negress getting a scotus clerkship?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:54 AM
Author: this nigga eating memes!

Space Teen!

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:54 AM
Author: t bone(ggtp)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:54 AM
Author: ,.,.,.,..,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,.



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:54 AM
Author: Slime Wall Climber

Biggest takeaway from this that all the genius XO'ers missed is that SHE IS NOT BLACK. I don't know what she is or where her fucking immigrant peeps came from, but she is not black, descendent of slave USA Black. These are the fucking ppl that AA was set out for, not some fucking immigrant kid. But all the fucking schools and Spicy gets to chalk one up for the Black team, but it is entirely unrepresentative of USA Blacks, but shows up in the stats. It is bullshit.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:54 AM
Author: slimp

cr. no way i'm reading that, but first paragraph is good enough for a law student.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:54 AM
Author: :D(5000 mcg B12/wk, 150 mcg iodine/day, 250 mg algal DHA-EPA/day)


The screeching on twitter right now is epic. These people are vile.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:54 AM
Author: .,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alyssa_Carson#/media/File:Alyssa_Carson_3.jpg

She's such a cutie, though. Hard to get sexual with a girl who still smiles like a girl.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:54 AM
Author: Driving back in silence from retirement home



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:54 AM
Author: HoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:53 AM
Author: Taylor Swift is not a hobby she is a lifestyle

OH SHIT SOROS HAS MULTIBILLION SHEKELS

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:53 AM
Author: Driving back in silence from retirement home



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:53 AM
Author: t bone(ggtp)


LITERAL GRU AGENT on stage

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:53 AM
Author: grand arbre



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:53 AM
Author: this nigga eating memes!

seems reasonably well written

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:53 AM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


sounds like a cookie cutter LR article just summarizing the state of the law and with a final section arguing for changes that basically copies some judicial opinion .

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:53 AM
Author: pedude

csb

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:52 AM
Author: HoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:52 AM
Author: cannon

In Russia, emails lose you

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:52 AM
Author: grand arbre

wash your mouth

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:52 AM
Author: Progression to the Mean(Dork Enlightenment)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:52 AM
Author: .,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

OFS

would creampie her in zero-g

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:52 AM
Author: t bone(ggtp)


WHERE IS THE SERVER OF THE PAKISTANI GENTLEMAN

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:52 AM
Author: united states poast office (retired)(uspo)


stfu boomer retard

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:52 AM
Author: grand arbre

publish reactionary books for middle school boys that get optioned into movies and tv shows

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:52 AM
Author: goi toy



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:51 AM
Author: boner police?

?

i love my job

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:51 AM
Author: Buck \"The Club\" Paulette

OH SHIT, TRUMP THROWING DOWN

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:51 AM
Author: Indrid Cold

lol the press are making trump and putin look dignified and composed

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:51 AM
Author: grand arbre

Fighting Americans were all whites, blacks, and Japs getting along, working as brothers, doing their best in a horrible situation.

Protesting Americans were all Jewish rich kids whose entire motivation was to not risk their lives for the country.

After 40 years of hollywood narrative, I was ready for entire episodes about the heroism and patriotism of the anti-war movement, set to boomer rock, contrasted with the babykilling redneck soldiers, raping gooks.

Its the opposite.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:51 AM
Author: slimp

pointless, thankless death at an absurd age (58ish).

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:51 AM
Author: calishitlawguru

Persian jew. Cool dude. He is part of my hookah crew every couple weeks.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:50 AM
Author: .,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

Fair point. As it happens, she has at least one LR article
https://search.proquest.com/docview/1762693452



The Great Balancing Act: The Effect of the America Invents Act on the Division of Power Between the Patent and Trademark Office and the Federal Circuit
Ali, Samiyyah R. Vanderbilt Law Review; Nashville Vol. 69, Iss. 1, (Jan 2016): 217-248.

Full Text

Translate Full text

INTRODUCTION

The United States Constitution grants Congress the power "[t]o promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts"1 by entering into a bargain that drives patent policy: Congress grants a patent to the inventor for a limited time, in exchange for the benefit to society of the invention.2 The Constitution empowered Congress with broad authority,3 and Congress has, as in many areas of the law,4 created several entities that shape patent policy.5 Despite Congress's creation of the United States Patent and Trademark Office ( "PTO"), tasked with the regulation of patent applications and grants, 6 courts-specifically semi-specialized appellate courts -have driven patent policy for nearly two centuries.7

Beginning in 1982 when Congress established a single, specialized court with near-exclusive appellate jurisdiction in patent cases, the Unites States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, the judiciary has dominated the interpretation of the patent statute.8 From the initial Patent Act of 17909 to the most recent overhaul of the patent system,10 Congress has drafted laws in broad terms, implicitly leaving much substantive law for the patent institutions, specifically the PTO and the Federal Circuit, to interpret.11 Despite several amendments to the Patent Act, Congress has not yet given the PTO rulemaking authority over substantive questions of patent law.12 The result is a legal hybrid whereby the PTO examines and issues patents -a process that necessarily invokes patentability determinations-while the Federal Circuit assumes primary authority of interpreting substantive questions of patent law.13 Surprisingly, however, the Federal Circuit has consistently refused to grant any deference to the legal conclusions of the PTO,14 and attempts at patent policy reform have been marred by the power struggle between the PTO and the Federal Circuit over substantive patent law.15

Despite qualifying as the most substantial overhaul to the patent system,16 the America Invents Act of 2011 ( "AIA")17 continues this trend. The AIA did not grant the PTO expansive authority to promulgate rules of substantive patent law, despite early versions of legislation and numerous scholarly proposals requesting such authority.18 Congress did, however, grant the PTO new powers to be implemented after the PTO has issued a patent -most notably a postgrant review proceeding akin to an adjudicatory hearing wherein third parties may challenge the validity of granted patents.19 Many scholars understand the AIA 's new grant of power as Congress's indication that the PTO reviews patents with force-of-law power, thus warranting judicial deference to its interpretations of substantive patent law and installing the PTO as the primary interpreter of the patent statute.20

However, not all scholars agree.21 The argument for judicial deference is well articulated under administrative law, but even if interpreting the AIA 's grant of adjudicatory powers to the PTO would serve as a trigger for deference,22 the potential impact of such a deferential shift on the patent system and policy is unclear. Two facts are undisputed: (1) the AIA expands the power of the PTO,23 and (2) the Federal Circuit is uniquely positioned as the only court of appeals with subject matter jurisdiction over patent disputes, as its rulings are binding on all United States district courts.24 What scholars still dispute is whether Congress, in enacting the AIA, intended to designate the PTO as the single interpreter of the Patent Act and permanently change the balance of power between the PTO and the Federal Circuit.

This Note argues that, considering the new authority established in the AIA and the complex distribution of patent authority among the judiciary, executive, and Congress, the traditional Chevron25 framework for administrative deference is ill-suited to promote desired patent policy reform. Thus, a more flexible approach, likely Skidmore26 deference, is ideal to honor Congress 's complex institutional design of the patent system. Part I of this Note discusses the historical balance of power between agencies and courts from the first patent statute and the creation of the Federal Circuit to the Patent Act of 1952, using a historical analysis to highlight preexisting tensions. Part II analyzes and critiques the scholarly calls for Chevron deference for post-grant review proceedings established under the AIA. Part III argues that courts should grant Skidmore deference to the PTO's interpretations of substantive patent law, facilitating the necessary checks and balances on the creation of patent law and policy.

I. CONGRESSIONAL DELEGATION OF PATENT POWER BETWEEN AGENCIES AND COURTS

Although patent law is of great importance to the American economy-fostering continuous innovation to progress society27- Congress, tasked with continuously responding to rapid technological change, has neither the time nor expertise to retain exclusive control over patent reform.28 The U.S. patent system thus has a unique institutional structure, primarily featuring the PTO, an agency designated with the task of determining patentability;29 the Federal Circuit, an appellate court of near-exclusive national jurisdiction;30 and a non-comprehensive statute that leaves significant room for interpretation.31 This Part provides a brief overview of the history of the PTO, the creation of the Federal Circuit, and the relationship of those bodies in creating patent policy upon the delegation of Congress. Next, this Part discusses the treatment of calls for judicial deference under the Patent Act of 1952.

A. The History of the Patent and Trademark Office

Congressional delegation of the constitutional patent power32 predates the PTO, originating in the late eighteenth century. Under the Patent Act of 1790, Congress granted the Secretary of State, the Secretary of War, and the United States Attorney General authority to examine patent applications and issue patents.33 Congress expanded the scope of executive power over patents in the Patent Act of 1836, which created the first Patent Office and empowered it with broad authority.34 Under the Patent Act of 1836, the Patent Office gained authority "to superintend, execute, and perform, all such acts and things touching and respecting the granting and issuing of patents for new and useful discoveries, inventions, and improvements."35 Congress did not, however, enumerate any specific authority of the Patent Office to make rules interpreting substantive patent law.

Patent law was untouched by significant reform until the Patent Act of 1952, which created the modern PTO and tasked it with the mission to "foster[ ] innovation and competition primarily through examining patent applications and determining which inventions warrant the grant of a patent."36 Congress specifically endowed the PTO with the power to promulgate rules for conducting proceedings in the PTO and rules governing the conduct of patent practitioners.37 Notably, however, the statute did not grant any substantive rulemaking authority to the PTO.38 Considering the lack of congressional delegation of substantive rulemaking authority over the Patent Act of 1952 and the Federal Circuit's persistent refusal to grant judicial deference to the agency's substantive interpretations of the Patent Act, many considered the PTO a weak administrative agency.39 Consequently, the judiciary has historically assumed the role as "the most important expositor of the substantive law of patents in the United States," filling the gaps Congress left in the patent statutes.40

B. The Creation of Semi-specialized Federal Courts

Following the creation in 1891 of the modern three -tier federal courts system-i.e., regional district courts, regional courts of appeals, and the United States Supreme Court-patent appeals were indistinct from appeals in other areas of law. Thus, the regional courts of appeals maintained jurisdiction over patent appeals for nearly a century.41 The widespread jurisdiction led to numerous circuit splits on important patent issues, which prompted congressional intervention to streamline appellate authority over patent disputes, as well as patent policymaking.

1. Creation of the Court of Customs and Patent Appeals

In 1929, Congress empowered the Court of Customs and Patent Appeals ( "CCPA"), an Article I court, to hear appeals from the Patent Office and other agencies' proceedings. However, the CCPA's jurisdiction over patent appeals was not exclusive ;42 patent litigation was still reviewed by regional circuit courts, which lead to circuit splits and significant forum-shopping.43 The CCPA's unexpected execution of primarily judicial (and emphatically non-administrative) power prompted Congress to convert the CCPA into an Article III court.44 The CCPA's patent jurisprudence changed significantly when Congress overhauled the Patent Act in 1952, bolstering the scheme for resolving patentability and infringement disputes. Congress 's failure to grant the PTO substantive rulemaking authority consequently positioned the CCPA to make important decisions regarding the implementation and interpretation of the Patent Act.45 Despite the prominent influence of the CCPA in patent lawmaking and policy, Congress continued to seek increased uniformity in patent law across jurisdictions.46

By 1977, the Senate was considering reform to the judiciary; it even contemplated a National Court of Appeals.47 Within this debate, senators commonly acknowledged that the patent system needed reform and uniformity to eliminate circuit splits and chaotic treatment of patent law caused by competing appellate interpretations.48

2. The Federal Circuit and Exclusive Jurisdiction Over Patent Appeals

The Federal Courts Improvement Act ( "FCIA") provided the desired uniformity: the creation of the Federal Circuit with exclusive jurisdiction over three sources of appeals: (1) federal district court cases "arising under" the patent laws, (2) proceedings within the PTO, and (3) International Trade Commission ( "ITC") investigations over potentially infringing imported products.49 The Federal Circuit had an important mandate -to use its expertise and specialization to establish uniformity in the development and application of patent law.50

After the creation of the Federal Circuit, other institutional actors-namely, the Supreme Court and Congress -retreated from substantive patent lawmaking and deferred to the Federal Circuit's decisionmaking. Namely, the Supreme Court and Congress, the two institutions that previously directed patent law, seemingly lost interest in substantive patent law.51 The Supreme Court heard only two substantive patent issues from 1982 to 2001, and Congress did not make any substantive changes to patent law until the AIA in 2011.52 This new apathy shown by the Supreme Court and Congress, coupled with the PTO's lack of substantive rulemaking power, aggrandized the role of the Federal Circuit into a powerful creator of patent policy.53

C. The Patent Act of 1952 and Denials of Judicial Deference

Historically, the patent system has maintained a tenuous relationship with administrative law. Though the PTO is an executive agency tasked with all initial patentability determinations, the Federal Circuit has continuously resisted meaningfully engaging traditional administrative law principles when reviewing the PTO's decisions and interpretations, beginning principally with the Patent Act of 1952.54 Thus, the courts have generally refused to apply the traditional deference regimes to the PTO, leaving the courts with the ultimate say on patent policy.

1. The Chevron Doctrine and "Step Zero"

Congress often delegates its lawmaking authority when it does not have the capacity, resources, or time to resolve and develop every detail of a legislative scheme.55 In delegating its lawmaking authority, Congress has a choice of interpreter. Historically, courts have declared that it is the role, even the responsibility, of the court to say what the law is.56 However, in the modern administrative state, Congress may delegate the authority to interpret its statutory provisions to agencies through their empowering statutes.57 Meanwhile, courts, when reviewing an agency's action and interpretation of statutory provisions, must determine whether Congress delegated interpretive authority to the agency, warranting a high level of deference to the agency interpreting within that authority, or whether such interpretive power exceeds the power of the agency, leaving the court with responsibility to say what the law is.58 This analytical deference framework, derived from Chevron, U.S.A., Inc. v. NRDC, Inc., relies on a theory of congressional delegation whereby Congress "delegate[s] interpretive authority to the agency whenever it fails to resolve the meaning of particular statutory language," either implicitly (by leaving gaps in the statute for the agency to fill) or explicitly.59

In Chevron, the Court established a two-part test governing judicial review of agency interpretations.60 First, the court determines whether Congress has spoken directly to the specific question at issue.61 If there is no ambiguity in Congress's intent, both the court and agency must follow that unambiguously expressed intent.62 However, if Congress has explicitly left a gap for the agency to fill, then it has intended to delegate interpretive power to the agency. In this scenario, the court, under the second step of Chevron, must defer to the agency's reasonable interpretation of the statute.63 The Court suggested several reasons for Congress's intent to delegate to agencies (instead of courts) the authority to fill gaps in statutes: "agency expertise, lack of legislative foresight, . . . to obtain consensus on an issue while allowing divergent coalitions to 'take their chances' on a favorable decision at the administrative level," 64 and the separation-of-powers implication that political value judgments should be made by the politically accountable branches of government, not unelected judges.65

Following Chevron, the Court further clarified the deference regime, creating a "prequel" to Chevron, also known as "Step Zero."66 In United States v. Mead Corp.,67 the Court held that an agency is only entitled to Chevron deference "when it appears that Congress delegated authority to the agency generally to make rules carrying the force of law, and that the agency interpretation claiming deference was promulgated in the exercise of such authority."68 That is, before applying Chevron, a court must determine if Congress intended to defer to the agency on this type of interpretation of this specific type of statute in this particular context.69 A court must consider the agency's conferred authority alongside other statutory context in determining whether "Congress would expect the agency to be able to speak with the force of law" to fill the gaps and ambiguity in the statute.70

The Supreme Court further recognized that notice-and-comment rulemaking and formal adjudication are strong indicators of delegation warranting Chevron deference, assuming that Congress intentionally granted such authority to conduct a "formal administrative procedure" involving fairness and deliberation with the expectation that the agency bind with the force of law.71

2. Skidmore Deference

If Chevron does not apply because the statute fails at either of the aforementioned steps, the proper framework typically implemented is outlined in Skidmore v. Swift & Co.,72 which provides for a sliding scale of deference depending on the persuasiveness of the agency 's interpretive process.73 Skidmore, predating both the Administrative Procedure Act ("APA") and Chevron, held that even when the courts (rather than an agency) maintain the primary responsibility for statutory interpretation, the court should give due weight to an agency's interpretation of its own organic statute because of its familiarity with its provisions.74 Although Skidmore was decided long before the creation of Mead's Step Zero, scholars and courts generally agree that if Chevron does not apply, courts will give Skidmore deference to agency interpretations "within the agency's peculiar sphere of action," including patent law.75

Under Chevron, courts defer to reasonable interpretations regardless of the thoroughness or consistency of the agency's reasoning.76 Conversely, Skidmore requires an ad hoc approach in determining the appropriate weight accorded to an administrative interpretation given an agency's expertise, experience, and judgment.77 The court particularly inquires into the "thoroughness evident in its consideration, the validity of its reasoning, its consistency with earlier and later pronouncements, and all those factors which give it power to persuade, if lacking power to control." 78 The weight of Skidmore deference ultimately turns on the power of the agency to persuade the court, not that its interpretation is correct, but that it reflects informed consideration and supported reasoning by the agency. Because Skidmore presents a sliding-scale approach, the court is not bound to a specific level of deference in every case.

3. No Substantive Rulemaking Authority Under the Patent Act

The primary goal of patent law is to foster innovation.79 Yet it would be a daunting task, requiring a substantial expenditure of resources, to require the PTO at the early stages of patent-application examination to make an individualized inquiry and determine whether a particular patent actually promotes innovation.80 Instead, the Patent Act of 1952 instructs the PTO to make a patentability determination through a threshold examination of the patent for satisfaction of the validity standards under the statute. This role necessarily involves significant consideration of innovation, cost of patents, and benefits to consumers.81 These standards, however, are far from clear; the statute is broad and "skeletal in structure," thus necessitating a substantial legal interpretation to derive any practical use from its words.82

Consider, as an example, the requirement that the patent cover patent-eligible subject matter.83 The Patent Act of 1952 (and accordingly, the PTO) requires that the subject matter of a patent application be a "new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter."84 The Supreme Court has long held that abstract ideas do not constitute patentable subject matter.85 If a potential patentee submits for patenting a software embedded on a CDROM and the PTO determines that the software, even in the form of a tangible disk, is an "abstract idea" and thus unpatentable, the PTO is making a substantive interpretive rule that will receive no judicial deference.86 The Federal Circuit has assumed exclusive responsibility for interpreting the substantive law of the Patent Act and has not deferred to the PTO on such matters.87 This places the PTO, which is charged with enforcing the statute, in a difficult position-it must determine if each patent meets the statutory standard, yet it lacks the authority to promulgate rules to interpret the substantive provisions of the statute.88

4. The Federal Circuit's Resistance to Administrative Principles

The PTO is unique among other prominent agencies in its lack of significant authority to issue substantive rules; consequently, its legal interpretations of the Patent Act do not receive Chevron deference.89 The Federal Circuit has only granted judicial deference to the PTO when the PTO is interpreting statutory provisions related to the conduct or procedures within the agency.90 Many scholars have suggested that the failure of Congress to give the PTO substantive interpretative powers of the Patent Act has rendered it a weak administrative agency.91 Others have blamed the Federal Circuit for creating for itself the role as the dominant, and maybe sole, player in patent policy.92

Indeed, the Federal Circuit has contributed to the balance of power in the patent system by continuously denying deference . The PTO, however, has not remained silent.93 Three cases best characterize the Federal Circuit's treatment of administrative law in patent cases and its narrow construction of the agency's authority: Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Quigg,94 Merck & Co. v. Kessler,95 and Dickinson v. Zurko.96

In Quigg, the PTO issued a notice stating that non-human organisms such as animals were patentable under 35 U.S.C. § 101, prompting a number of animal rights organizations to challenge the agency's failure to comply with the APA's97 required notice-andcomment procedures.98 The Federal Circuit ruled in favor of the PTO, holding that the notice was an interpretive rule, which is exempt from APA requirements, and not a substantive rule, which constitutes a "change in existing law or policy." 99 The court reasoned that the type of substantive declaration that would require APA compliance is not within the PTO's limited authority to promulgate rules governing the conduct of its proceedings.100 Quigg created some confusion around the distinction between interpretive and substantive rules,101 but the decision undoubtedly limited the PTO's authority.102

Five years after Quigg, the PTO again defended a statutory interpretation in Merck-a "Notice of Final Determination"103 that interpreted a statute limiting the length of potential patent term extensions for certain patents related to the pharmaceutical industry.104 This time, the Federal Circuit ruled against the PTO, firmly holding that the "broadest of the PTO's rulemaking powers" under 35 U.S.C. § 6(a) "authorize[s] the Commissioner to promulgate regulations directed only to the 'conduct of proceedings in the [PTO] '; NOT . . . the authority to issue substantive rules."105 Although the court in Merck refused to grant deference to the PTO's interpretation, it did not address the PTO's authority to promulgate rules at all.106 Nonetheless, the decision, perhaps inadvertently, served as the impetus for deying the PTO any substantive rulemaking authority in patent law.107 Prompted by the limiting nature of Merck, the PTO began asserting more influence over patent law and policy.108

The final case, Dickinson, centered on the applicability of the APA to the PTO. The Supreme Court examined whether the Patent Act specifies a judicial standard of review and to what extent that should displace the APA.109 Notably, the Patent Act predates the APA, which was enacted in 1946, and subsequent amendments did not add any language concerning how PTO actions should be reviewed in courts. Until 1999, the Federal Circuit held that the APA did not apply to its review of the PTO.110 The Supreme Court disagreed,111 holding that the APA sets the "governing standards for review of [PTO] fact-finding" and rejecting the Federal Circuit's less deferential clearly erroneous standard of review.112 Several patent scholars praise Dickinson as a monumental move by the Supreme Court to apply administrative law to the patent system.113 However, the decision did not fundamentally challenge the Federal Circuit's failure to apply administrative principles of deference to the PTO's substantive statutory interpretation.114 After Dickinson, Congress remained silent-at least until 2011.

II. THE LEAHY-SMITH AMERICA INVENTS ACT OF 2011 AND RENEWED CALLS FOR CHEVRON DEFERENCE

In 2011, Congress conducted the first significant reform to the patent system in sixty years115 with the enactment of the AIA.116 This Part provides a brief overview of the AIA's changes to the patent system, which were made in response to the many calls for patent reform. It then analyzes the arguments for judicial deference, triggered by the AIA 's creation of new PTO post-grant proceedings.

A. Long-Awaited Reforms and the Enactment of the AIA

For decades, Congress debated the necessity of reforming the patent system. Since the enactment of the Patent Act of 1952, patent practitioners and scholars complained of delays in the patent examination and review processes as well as the overwhelming number of low-quality patents, colloquially termed "bad patents," frequently issued by the PTO.117 Many patent scholars and practitioners praise the meaningful reforms in the AIA, considering it the "most significant overhaul to our patent system, since the founding fathers first conceived of codifying a grand bargain between society and invention."118 Indeed, the Act bolsters the PTO's authority and provides for important, comprehensive changes to resolve significant problems in the patent system.119

The relevant additions to the PTO's primary responsibilities stem from the creation of the Patent Trial and Appeal Board ( "PTAB"). The Act instructs the agency to appoint "administrative patent judges . . . of competent legal knowledge and scientific ability"120 who are tasked with reviewing examiners ' rejections of patent applications and appeals for reexaminations of patent applications, as well as conducting proceedings after initial patent grants121-namely, the "inter partes review"122 and the "post-grant review."123 Although the AIA implemented many changes relevant to the discussion of the balance of power between the PTO and the Federal Circuit, this Note focuses on the post-grant review and inter partes review proceedings, the creation of which served as the impetus for scholarly calls for judicial deference.

The inter partes review ("IPR") proceeding allows a challenger, within nine months of the issuance of a patent, to institute a proceeding to review the patent and request its cancellation under two specific requirements for patentability.124 The PTO director has authority to authorize an IPR if he determines that the petition raises a "reasonable likelihood that the petitioner would prevail with respect to at least [one] of the claims challenged."125 The Act also empowers the director to prescribe certain regulations, including establishing the standards and procedures for inter partes review, including regulating discovery and granting protective orders.126

The post-grant review ("PGR") proceeding is similar to, but broader in scope than, the IPR. The AIA permits a challenger to request the cancellation of patent claims as unpatentable on any ground of patent validity, not solely the two validity requirements permitted under the inter partes review.127 Additionally, the AIA imposes a standard for PGR: the director must determine that the challenger's petition "demonstrate[s] that it is more likely than not that at least [one] of the claim challenges is unpatentable."128 The director is again empowered to prescribe regulations to develop the procedural aspects of the proceeding, including the submission of supplemental information, discovery standards, sanctions for litigation abuse, and granting protected orders.129

Both proceedings result in a "final written decision with respect to the patentability of any [challenged] patent claim." 130 However, the PGR proceedings are the more robust tool. The purpose of instituting PGR proceedings was to address the infiltration of weak patents by "weed[ing them out] before they have an adverse effect on the market."131 These proceedings are the PTO's most robust tool for invalidating patents because of the allowance of third-party challenges, a deviation from other proceedings involving only the patent owner and the agency; the broad scope of possible grounds for challenge, including any statutory requirement of patentability; and the "adversarial, courtlike proceeding"132 conducted at the PTAB as a potential alternative to litigation.133 Indeed, the PGR provisions serve as the rationalization for renewed calls for judicial deference to PTO interpretations of the Patent Act.134

B. The Argument for Chevron Deference for Newly Created PTO Proceedings

Although the AIA created the PTAB and added significant postgrant review proceedings to the PTO's authority, the AIA did not fulfill all of scholars' requests. Despite the "repeated, vocal calls to do so " from the various actors in the patent system,135 Congress failed to grant the PTO any substantive rulemaking authority in the AIA. 136 Nevertheless, scholars suggest that the AIA's changes are a significant enough shift in the control of patent policymaking from the Federal Circuit to the PTO to merit systemic judicial deference.137

1. Chevron Deference for Post-grant Review Proceedings

Several patent practitioners and owners criticized Congress 's refusal to grant the PTO substantive rulemaking authority under the Patent Act, which would have likely entitled its authorized interpretations to Chevron deference.138 Even in the absence of such authority, scholars have begun arguing that the AIA 's creation of postgrant review proceedings is a trigger for Chevron deference under Mead.139 Given the characteristics that both inter partes review and PGR share with judicial proceedings (e.g., adversarial, trial-like proceedings, oral arguments, discovery, and administrative patent judges), there is a strong argument that Congress implicitly140 intended these proceedings to bind with the force of the law and trigger the high level of deference to agency interpretation advanced by Chevron.141

The foremost scholar leading the charge for Chevron deference, Professor Melissa Wasserman, indicates four primary justifications for this argument: (1) the ambiguity of the Patent Act, (2) the formality of PGR proceedings as an implicit delegation by Congress of authority to bind with the force of the law, (3) an explicit intent of such a grant of authority in the statutory language, and (4) the expertise theory of congressional delegation.142 It is undisputed that the Patent Act is often ambiguous and leaves several gaps for the interpreter (whether the agency or the court) to fill in determining standards for patentability. Thus, this Note focuses on the latter three points of analysis.

The nature of the post-grant review established under the AIA, as mentioned above, is a trial-like, adversarial proceeding, which may constitute the type of formal adjudication contemplated under Mead's Step Zero. Meanwhile, the APA states that the following signals formal adjudication: "every case of adjudication required by statute to be determined on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing." 143 While the AIA does not use the phrase "on the record," it does require the administrator of post-grant review proceedings to provide "either party with the right to an oral hearing as part of the proceeding."144 Furthermore, the AIA provides for sanctions or other consequences "for individuals who violate a policy announced during an agency's adjudication"-another indicator of the binding effect of the proceedings.145 Thus, the argument for Chevron deference is that Congress intended the PGR proceedings to take place through formal procedures, both meeting and exceeding several formal adjudication requirements under the APA.146 It so follows that Congress's intent to establish the post-grant review as formal adjudication should warrant Chevron deference for the PTO's interpretation of the Patent Act made during those proceedings.147

Next, the call for Chevron deference relies on specific statutory language describing PGR as a demonstration of explicit congressional intent. Under the provision for post-grant review, the director is instructed to determine whether the challenger has shown that it is more likely than not that a challenged claim is unpatentable.148 The director may also proceed with PGR if the challenger's petition "raises a novel or unsettled legal question that is important to other patents or patent applications."149 Professor Wasserman points to this language as Congress's intention that "the agency . . . make policy or law that affects the rights of many people," as opposed to solely determining factual issues between specific parties.150 Thus, Professor Wasserman argues that Congress intended the PTO to play a more significant policymaking function than before, given the PTO's new power to resolve broad legal questions and the broad capacity of post-grant review to settle disputes on any grounds of patentability.151

Finally, Professor Wasserman turns to the expertise theory originally highlighted by the Chevron Court.152 Despite the specialization of the Federal Circuit, she determines that the PTO is more capable of determining patentability standards to accomplish the overarching goal of innovation than the judiciary. 153 Although some Federal Circuit judges hold scientific degrees, which are helpful for patent determinations, virtually all PTO examiners hold advanced scientific degrees in the precise areas of their work . Further, the PTO has mechanisms-including hearings, studies, collaboration with other agencies, and facilitated communication with patent constituents -to make the necessary patent policy decisions.154

2. Elephant or Mouse?

Professor Wasserman presents a compelling argument for the application of administrative law to the patent system: if Congress, in enacting the AIA and creating post-grant review proceedings, intended PGR to bind with the force of law, the PTO should receive Chevron deference for its interpretations of substantive patent law. Nevertheless, some scholars are hesitant to accept such a radical shift to the patent system.155 Considering the Federal Circuit's historical refusal to afford any judicial deference to the PTO's interpretations of the Patent Act's substantive provisions, granting the high level of deference contemplated under Chevron would be dramatic.156 Though Mead demands deference when Congress intended for the agency's interpretations to bind with the force of the law, the Supreme Court has recognized "extraordinary cases [where] there may be reason to hesitate before concluding that Congress has intended such an implicit delegation."157 The Court has expressed its skepticism that Congress would "alter the fundamental details of a regulatory scheme in vague terms or ancillary provisions . . . [by] hid[ing] elephants in mouseholes."158 That is, Congress would not implictly delegate a task to an agency that would change a long-standing and pervasive regulatory structure.

Some scholars have invoked the "elephants in mouseholes" doctrine to temper the expectations that the AIA manifests Co ngress's intent to wholly shift the role of patent policymaking from the courts to the PTO, reasoning that "a new grant of authority to the [PTO] to effectively displace [the Federal Circuit] as the primary means to those ends seems to [be] more 'elephant' than 'mouse.' "159 Though the court has only applied the doctrine in extraordinary cases,160 the patent system may merit the doctrine's application. To find a power shift sufficient to warrant Chevron deference, one must accept that Congress has "turned on its head" a legal regime it earlier created-one with a single court with exclusive, specialized jurisdiction over patent appeals and a task to clarify and unify patent law.161

The AIA lacks any clear, express congressional intent to remove from the court its historical, enduring and near-exclusive role in determining patentability standards, which Congress arguably would abrogate if desired.162 And the legislative history similarly lacks any such indication.163 Though the legislative history reveals discussion of proposals to grant the PTO substantive rulemaking authority, explicit proposals were ultimately rejected despite multiple attempts to insert them.164 Still, the elephants in mouseholes doctrine may be insufficient to overcome Professor Wasserman's administrative law arguments, particularly given the high bar for cases meriting the application of the doctrine165 and the common reluctance to infer meaning from congressional inaction.166

III. FINDING BALANCE IN SKIDMORE: A FLEXIBLE DEFERENCE MODEL FOR THE PATENT SYSTEM

This Note does not contest Professor Wasserman's premise that the PTO deserves some deference. But given the significant changes in the AIA and the Dickinson Court's rejection of patent exceptionalism from administrative law, the Federal Circuit 's current tradition of granting no deference is misguided. This Note suggests that perhaps the answer is not so binary-rather, the answer may lie somewhere between Chevron deference and the continuation of the no-deference regime.

Instead of subjecting the complex institutional design of the patent system to the rigid confines of the Chevron scheme, the Federal Circuit should rely on a flexible model of judicial deference that can accommodate policymaking of the many actors in the patent system and effectively accomplish the ultimate goal of innovation. First, this Part acknowledges that the courts will, and should, deviate from applying traditional Chevron deference when congressional intent necessitates an alternative scheme. Second, this Part seeks to establish that the patent system deserves a closer look into congressional intent before applying Chevron. Finally, this Part proposes the application of Skidmore as a sufficient, though not exclusive, deference regime to accomplish the goals of the patent system.

A. Chevron Deference Does Not Always Apply

Following the Supreme Court's unanimous decision in Chevron, courts have routinely upheld reasonable agency interpretations of statutory provisions under the theory that Congress leaves gaps as implicit delegations of interpretive power to administrative agencies, where not contrary to statute.167 Mead limited Chevron, however, in creating "Step Zero "-a step that determines whether Congress intended for the agency to serve as the primary interpreter of its organic statute before triggering Chevron deference.168 Mead infers such intent when Congress intends for (1) the agency to make "generalized determinations that may affect the rights of many," (2) the agency to make binding law and policy,169 and (3) for the agency, not the court, to serve as the interpreter of the statute. Mead names two indicators in statutory grants of authority-rulemaking power and formal adjudication-as sufficient to infer congressional intent to delegate authority to the agency.170

1. Holding the Trigger of Chevron Deference

Though these procedural indicators have been termed safe harbors,171 it remains disputed whether the existence, and execution, of either rulemaking power or formal adjudication is sufficient to automatically trigger Chevron deference.172 Notably, in his concurring opinion in National Cable & Telecommunications Ass'n v. Brand X Internet Services , Justice Breyer reasoned that procedural formality was "not a sufficient condition [for Chevron deference] because Congress may have intended not to leave the matter of a particular interpretation up to the agency, irrespective of the procedure the agency uses to arrive at that interpretation, say, where an unusually basic legal question is at issue."173 At first glance, Justice Breyer's statement may appear remarkable. After all, Mead augments the Chevron doctrine to delineate two safe harbors for deferential review.

However, upon closer look, Justice Breyer's statement reflects the inherent meaning of both Mead and Chevron. Consider the suggestion that Chevron, in instructing courts to defer to agency interpretations when Congress has implicitly delegated the appropriate authority, "rests on a rational reconstruction of congressional intent about local judicial deference to agency interpretations."174 While the inferences made from the traditional safe harbors of rulemaking and adjudication are strong, they may not be absolute if congressional intent suggests otherwise.

If rulemaking power and formal adjudication are thus viewed as proxies for congressional intent-instead of automatic triggers for Chevron deference -then the Mead inquiry requires a broad statutory context and any indicators of congressional intent to delegate to agencies.175 In Brand X , for example, Justice Breyer joined the majority in applying Chevron deference after the court considered: agency expertise, "the interstitial nature of the legal question," the "importance of the question," "complexity of that administration," and "careful consideration the Agency has given the questio n."176 Furthermore, given Congress 's usual silence on judicial review standards, Chevron, viewed as a purely judicial construction, is a "fictionalized statement of legislative desire," which ultimately reflects the court's own policy judgments about statutory interpretation.177 Often the choice of procedural authority granted to the agency may sufficiently demonstrate Congress 's intent. But Chevron should not automatically apply in the presence of those formalities when congressional intent suggests the need for a different model of deference to support Congress's legislative goals. Thus, if Congress intends a particular regulatory scheme, like within the patent system, courts should hesitate before applying Chevron deference.

2. Deviations from Chevron Are Not Uncommon

Although administrative law jurisprudence has long relied on Chevron deference, particularly its application in the presence of statutory rulemaking and formal adjudication, the presumption that statutory ambiguity implies congressional delegation has never applied uniformly across all cases.178 Indeed, courts have often invoked a broad spectrum of deference when deciding whether and how much to defer to agencies' statutory interpretations.179 This is particularly true when Congress has designated more than one institutional actor as a policymaker in the field, as it has done with patents.180

Scholars have suggested that the Court sometimes takes an ad hoc approach that considers statutory context and legislative history in determining whether to defer to an agency.181 One such example is Martin v. Occupational Safety & Health Review Commission, where the Court reviewed the Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1970, a "split-enforcement statute " delegating powers to both the Secretary of Labor (tasked with setting and enforcing workplace standards) and the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (tasked with adjudicatory functions).182 The Court made a "particularized inquiry of congressional delegation . . . examin[ing] the inferences that could be drawn about legislative intent from the statutory context and the legislative history."183 Similarly, Chevron seems difficult to apply when there is jurisdictional overlap-i.e., when Congress might allocate authority between different actors in potentially diverging or integrated ways.184 The ad hoc approach is beneficial for complex regulatory schemes, as it allows the courts to consider the agency's expertise and opinions, while also respecting congressional intent.

B. The Patent System Requires a Second Look Before Pulling the Chevron Trigger

Though scholars use the term "jurisdictional overlap" to refer to overlapping or concurrent authority between two or more agencies,185 the principle should extend to a system-such as the patent system- in which Congress has delegated significant authority to an agency to implement a statute and charged the agency with unifying the area of law to a semi-specialized federal court.186 Neither the Federal Circuit nor the PTO are sole patent policymakers. Rather, Congress intentionally designed a shared model of patent law and policymaking, akin to overlapping jurisdiction. Thus, courts should take a closer look before applying Chevron deference to the aforementioned AIA provisions.

1. The Federal Circuit and the PTO as Sole Regulators

The Federal Circuit, despite its long-standing role as the expositor of substantive patent law,187 encounters difficulty as a policymaker. In general, scholars point to both the limited resources to conduct complex economic inquiries and technical competence as two notable deficiencies in a judicial policymaking scheme.188 Though the Federal Circuit avoids some of these concerns because of its specialization in patent law and prevalence of patent specialists on the bench,189 the court is still limited to shaping policy through the lens of the cases and facts before it.190

Meanwhile, the PTO has long been criticized for lacking the capacity to serve as the primary interpreter of the Patent Act. Scholars have pointed to the potential for industry capture ("the co -opting of regulatory agencies by [industry] groups") ,191 pointing to the recent example of Covered Business Method Patents gaining an entirely separate post-issuance proceeding under the AIA in response to heavy bank lobbying.192 Similarly, the PTO (like other agencies) may be subject to political capture by other branches of the government using the agencies for their own ends.193 Additionally, scholars point to the abundance of bad patents the PTO issues, perhaps as an indicator of the agency's weakness.194 Finally, some scholars suggest that the PTO structure itself, established long before the APA and Chevron, overly constrains PTO discretion and needs restructuring to allow the PTO to serve as a statutory interpreter. Thus, it is easy to conclude that the Federal Circuit and the PTO each lack the capacity to serve as the sole interpreter of the Patent Act.

2. A Shared Model of Patent Policymaking

The complexity of the patent system exists because Congress tasks both the PTO and the Federal Circuit, institutions from different sides of the governmental tracks, with significant objectives within patent law and policy. Neither appears capable of serving as the sole policymaker. The PTO routinely decides the patentability of patent applications195 with the goal of fostering technological innovation, 196 and the Federal Circuit reviews appeals of validity and patent infringement to provide for uniformity in patent law.197

Further complicating the patent system, there are multiple agencies other than the PTO that deal with patent law and to some extent influence patent policy.198 For example, the International Trade Commission, an independent agency governed by the Tariff Act of 1930, which excludes the importation of goods that infringe U.S. patents,199 has influenced patent policy by implementing standards for infringement remedies that have been adopted by federal courts.200 While the Federal Trade Commission does not interpret patent law, it has demonstrated the ability to influence patent policy in the pharmaceutical field by coordinating the generic-drug-market entry process with the patent process.201 The Food and Drug Administration formulates patent policy relating to drugs and therapeutic proteins.202 The National Institutes of Health ("NIH") is involved in influencing the evolution of DNA-patent jurisprudence.203 Given these shared roles in creating patent policy, it is clear that Congress intended to take an integrative approach to patent policymaking.

The patent system, viewed as a complex system with multiple policy actors in different contexts, benefits from diversification. The diversity, in competence, expertise, and scope of authority-as well as the competition between the primary actors, the PTO and the Federal Circuit-may be more likely to accomplish the goals of the patent system than either the PTO or the Federal Circuit alone.204 Thus, by allowing the Federal Circuit and PTO to continue the ir historically criticized interbranch competition,205 Congress is in fact using the competition to "bring policy closer to [its preferences] than would delegation of a single agent."206

Given the complexity of the patent system, the traditional deference framework, namely Chevron deference, is a poor fit for understanding the relationship between the Federal Circuit and the PTO. Further, it fails to provide a sufficiently flexible deference regime that promotes the integrative administration of patent law. The first step of Chevron, which asks whether there is ambiguity in the statute left for the agency to fill, calls for the mechanical grant of deference when such ambiguity exists. The Patent Act is undoubtedly ambiguous-Congress has continuously written the substantive patent laws broadly, leaving several gaps.207 Thus, the Chevron step two inquiry turns on whether Congress intended the PTO alone to fill those gaps, which , under the traditional deference scheme, calls for the Mead analysis.

Even considering the addition of the PGR proceedings in the AIA, there is reason to conclude that congressional intent warrants deviation from the Chevron analysis. Chevron's first step appears to assume that Congress either is or is not implicitly delegating to an agency, but it does not account for the many other actors in the patent system. Thus, the near-automatic application of deference inappropriately ignores Congress 's intent to delegate patent policymaking to a diverse group of agencies and courts, each with unique, yet interdependent, contributions to patent law.

Chevron's second step directs the court to defer to the agency's statutory interpretation as long as it is reasonable . But this step similarly fails the patent system because the reasonableness inquiry is incomplete. The court should look not only to the justifications provided by the agency, but also to concerns of other patent actors and the greater policy concerns implicated by substantive patent law interpretations. Because Chevron is inflexible and inadequate for this task, granting strong judicial deference to the PTO undermines the goals and structure of the patent system. Accordingly, the court must select an appropriate deference regime that accounts for rightful contributions of and competition among the many patent players.

C. Skidmore Is Sufficient and Ideal for Integrated Reform of the Patent System

Given the complex and collaborative nature of patent regulation and policymaking, Skidmore provides a strong example of a deference regime capable of contouring to the needs of the patent system. Although Skidmore deference may be considered the second choice for agencies under Mead Step Zero, only granted upon the denial of Chevron deference, the doctrine is "far from meaningless."208 In practice, courts applying Skidmore often are highly deferential in favor of government agencies.209 The primary difference between Chevron and Skidmore is the court's discretion to acknowledge the expertise of the agency while still considering other important factors involved in congressional delegation, ultimately providing for a more holistic view of policymaking and the interpretation of substantive law.

Applying Skidmore deference to the PTO's interpretations of substantive law would provide courts with the flexibility to determine the necessary deference by considering the PTO 's rationale alongside broader patent policy issues. Importantly, it would do this without compromising the concerns enumerated in Professor Wasserman's calls for judicial deference. In addition to the traditional considerations under Skidmore,210 a court has latitude to consider other factors that demonstrate the persuasiveness of the agency's interpretation. Thus, in patent cases, the court can give weight to: the PTO's expertise and prior practices, its collaboration with other patent actors, the practical effects of the interpretation on other patent agencies and in other patent technologies, and broader goals within patent policy. This approach enables courts to consider the PTO's interpretation in the context of the entire patent system, promoting collaboration in the accomplishment of patent policy goals and providing more consistency and uniformity across the entire field of patent law.

The application of Skidmore in the patent field potentially raises two important concerns: (1) binding judicial interpretation and (2) excessive judicial discretion. First, because the court is exercising its interpretation powers under Skidmore instead of granting strong judicial deference, the court's determination of the organic statute 's meaning is binding.211 Despite the force of the court's interpretation, however, it is potentially reversible. The agency can propose changes to the court's interpretation, and the court will again consider the relevant Skidmore factors. Though this erects a barrier to the PTO not present under Chevron, its effect is not undesirable -the PTO should be prepared to assert and defend its reasoning whenever it seeks deference. Second, the flexibility of Skidmore may provide courts, particularly the Federal Circuit which has refused to grant any deference, with too much latitude in rejecting an agency's argument as unpersuasive.212 Though this is an important concern, the benefits of applying Skidmore to PTO interpretations overcome the risk. As the court would be required to consider several factors to determine "persuasiveness," a Skidmore analysis forces transparency of both the court and the agency, ultimately bolstering the legitimacy and uniformity of both patent actors without sacrificing necessary flexibility. Therefore, Skidmore is better suited than Chevron to give due deference to the PTO's expertise and contour to the unique structure of the patent system.

Consider again the dilemma presented by patent-eligible subject matter: the PTO must make daily determinations of patentability to issue each patent, yet its interpretations of the AIA's provisions receive no deference from the Federal Circuit. 213 Under the current regime, the Federal Circuit largely underestimates the PTO's expertise and perspective. Under Chevron, the court would stop after evaluating the reasonableness of the PTO's sole interpretation. If the court instead applied Skidmore, it would consider the PTO's experience, longstanding practices, and expertise in making these frequent decisions, while also considering whether the agency's reasoning addresses other concerns of patent policy. For example, the Federal Circuit might decide whether the PTO considered how the interpretation would apply across the different patentable technologies, whether the measure of patentability is consistent with the NIH's concerns about patenting DNA, or whether the proposed standard furthers the overall patent goal of innovation. This level of individualized inquiry well supports Congress's complex and integrated design of the patent system. Thus, the Federal Circuit should end its ongoing practice of denying (or avoiding) deference to the PTO and adopt a Skidmore inquiry when faced with agency interpretations of the Patent Act.

CONCLUSION

In constructing the patent system to facilitate the ultimate goal of technological innovation, Congress created a uniquely hybrid legal structure. After Congress enacted the America Invents Act of 2011, greatly expanding the responsibilities of the PTO (including the addition of new adjudicatory proceedings), the balance of power between the PTO and the Federal Circuit became ripe for reexamination.

Despite some scholars ' renewed calls for the PTO to receive Chevron deference for its statutory interpretations of substantive patent law, such a grand shift in the policymaking power within the patent system seems more like an elephant, not a mouse. Chevron deference to the PTO is inappropriate given the complexity of the institutional design of patent law intended by Congress. Chevron, perhaps, is too binary-asking the question of whether or not Congress intended the agency to be the primary interpreter of its organic statute. In the patent regime, Congress did not intend to delegate the interpretive and policymaking task solely to the PTO. Instead, Congress intentionally appointed several institutions, primarily the Federal Circuit and PTO, with overlapping jurisdiction and potentially competing approaches, to best foster the patent system's goal of encouraging innovation.

Thus, though some deference is surely deserved, courts should make a particularized, ad hoc inquiry into the interpretative process of the agency, a concept familiar to Mead , before deciding how much deference is appropriate. This Note recommends the application of Skidmore deference as appropriate for such a task, given its slidingscale deference approach, but leaves for later consideration other possible deference models that may fit the patent system. The Federal Circuit should thus abandon its historical no-deference approach and conduct the particularized inquiry necessary to properly maintain the balance among the patent system's many actors.
Footnote

1. U.S. CONST. art. I, § 8, cl. 8 (granting Congress the power "[t]o promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries").

2. Sarah Tran, Administrative Law, Patents, and Distorted Rules , 80 GEO. WASH. L. REV. 831, 855 (2012).

3. Id.

4. See William Weaver, Note, Multiple-Agency Delegations & One-Agency Chevron, 67 VAND. L. REV. 275, 276 (2014) (describing Congress's frequent delegation).

5. Arti K. Rai, Patent Validity Across the Executive Branch: Ex Ante Foundations for Policy Development, 61 DUKE L.J. 1237, 1237 (2012) ("In patent law, as in most areas of law, Congress, courts, and administrative agencies are the key inst itutions with the potential to shape policy.").

6. Tran, supra note 2, at 834 n.5.

7. See Rai, supra note 5, at 1237 ("In practice, though, courts have generally been regarded as the dominant players in shaping patent policy.").

8. Id. at 1238.

9. Patent Act of 1790, ch. 7, § 1, 1 Stat. 109, 109 -10 (1790) (granting authority to examine and issue patents to the Secretary of State, the Secretary of War, and the Attorney General).

10. Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, Pub. L. No. 112-29, 125 Stat. 284 (2011).

11. Rai, supra note 5, at 1237-38. There are other agencies that influence patent policy, and those are mentioned later in this analysis. See id. at 1239-42 (considering the other agency actors that make patent policy, including the International Trade Commission and the Federal Trade Commission).

12. See John M. Golden, Patentable Subject Matter and Institutional Choice , 89 TEX. L. REV. 1041, 1044 (2011) (explaining that the PTO "lacks binding interpretive author ity on matters of substantive law").

13. Id. at 1043.

14. See Melissa F. Wasserman, The Changing Guard of Patent Law: Chevron Deference for the PTO, 54 WM. & MARY L. REV. 1959, 1962 (2013) ("[T]he [PTO] lacks robust substantive rulemaking authority and receives no judicial deference for its legal interpretations of the Patent Act.").

15. Sarah Tran, Patent Powers , 25 HARV. J.L. & TECH. 609, 626 (2012).

16. David Kappos, Re-Inventing the U.S. Patent System, USPTO: DIRECTOR'S FORUM (Sept. 16, 2011, 5:45 PM), http://www.uspto.gov/blog/director/entry/re_inventing_the_us_patent [http://perma.cc/D424-829H].

17. Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, Pub. L. No. 112-29, 125 Stat. 284 (2011).

18. Rai, supra note 5, at 1239 ("[T]he AIA did not give the agency the expansive rulemaking authority over questions of substantive patent law that had been proposed in earlier versions of the legislation.").

19. Joe Matal, A Guide to the Legislative History of the America Invents Act: Part I of II , 21 FED. CIR. B.J. 435, 435 (2011).

20. Wasserman, supra note 14, at 1966-67; see also Rai, supra note 5, at 1239 ("[P]atent -law scholars are beginning to treat the PTO as a full-fledged participant in the institutional debate."); Tran, supra note 15, at 610 ("[The AIA] will likely change forever the institutional structure of the patent system, particularly the roles of the Patent Office and Federal Circuit and the relationship between administrative law and patent law.").

21. See Sapna Kumar, The Accidental Agency? , 65 FLA. L. REV. 229, 238 (2013) ("Congress did not substantially alter the balance of power between the Federal Circuit and the PTO .").

22. An agency's interpretation of its organic stat ute is entitled to judicial deference if Congress delegated to it the authority to issue interpretations that carry the force of law and the agency has used that authority in interpreting the statute. United States v. Mead Corp., 533 U.S. 218, 226-27 (2001).

23. Matal, supra note 19, at 435; Wasserman, supra note 14, at 1964.

24. 28 U.S.C. § 1295 (2012); see also J. Jonas Anderson, Patent Dialogue, 92 N.C. L. REV. 1049, 1051 (2014) (discussing the jurisdiction of the Federal Circuit).

25. Chevron, U.S.A., Inc. v. Nat. Res. Def. Council, Inc., 467 U.S. 837, 837 (1984).

26. Skidmore v. Swift & Co., 323 U.S. 134, 134 (1944).

27. Paul R. Gugliuzza, The Federal Circuit as a Federal Court , 54 WM. & MARY L. REV. 1791, 1800 (2013) (explaining the economic benefits of patent innovation).

28. See Rai, supra note 5, at 1266 (explaining that Congress is "usually unable to act quickly in the face of rapid technological development" and thus must delegate to other actors in the patent system).

29. 35 U.S.C. § 131 (2012) ("The [USPTO] Director shall cause an examination to be made of the application . . . and if on such examination it appears that the applicant is entitled to a patent under the law, the Director shall issue a patent therefor.").

30. 28 U.S.C. § 1295 (2012).

31. Golden, supra note 12, at 1044.

32. U.S. CONST. art. I, § 8, cl. 8 (granting Congress the power "[t]o promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries").

33. Patent Act of 1790, ch. 7, § 1, 1 Stat. 109, 109 -10 (1790).

34. Tran, supra note 15, at 617.

35. Patent Act of 1836, ch. 357, § 1, 5 Stat. 117, 117 -18 (1836).

36. Wasserman, supra note 14, at 1967.

37. Patent Act of 1952, Pub. L. No. 82-593, § 6, 66 Stat. 792, 793. See Kumar, supra note 21, at 237 (noting that the "procedural rules are promulgated through notice-and-comment rulemaking" and are "bind[ing on] patent applicants") ; Tran, supra note 15, at 617 (discussing the Patent Act of 1952).

38. See Wasserman, supra note 14, at 1962 ("[T]he [PTO] lacks robust substantive rulemaking authority."). But see Tran, supra note 15, at 617-18 (interpreting the 1952 Act as "encompassing the authority to promulgate some substantive rules," such as finding a patent invalid if the patent agent withheld material facts during pro secution (emphasis added)). Interpretations of the Patent Act of 1952's grant of authority to make binding rules is discussed infra Section I.C.

39. Gugliuzza, supra note 27, at 1820. This Note discusses changes to the perception of the PTO as a weak agency resulting from the enactment of the AIA infra Part II.

40. Michael J. Burstein, Rules for Patents , 52 WM. & MARY L. REV. 1747, 1757 (2011).

41. Gugliuzza, supra note 27, at 1800.

42. Id. The CCPA also maintained jurisdiction over patent appeals from the International Trade Commission ("ITC"). Kumar, supra note 21, at 234. The ITC is given little discussion in this Note, but it should be noted that the ITC does not have concurrent authority over the Patent Act. The ITC is an independent agency governed by the Tariff Act of 1930, which grants it authority to exclude from the United States the importation of goods that infringe patents. Id. at 238.

43. Kumar, supra note 21, at 234.

44. See id. at 239-40 (stating that it was "unclear what changed in the court's mission" when Congress converted the CCPA to an Article III court).

45. See id. at 240-41 (discussing the CCPA's ability to make important choices regarding implementation of the 1952 Act).

46. Id. at 234.

47. Id. at 243.

48. See id. "For example,

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:50 AM
Author: this nigga eating memes!

affirmative action extends to law school grading, too...which is why law schools don't like multiple choice tests--hard to give affirmative action bonus points

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:50 AM
Author: t bone(ggtp)


lol he just threw a soccer ball at melania

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:50 AM
Author: pedude

if any, that is...

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:50 AM
Author: cannon

Cited a treaty between the countries regarding cooperation on criminal investigations. Said Mueller was welcome to send a formal request under the obligations of the treaty and they would cooperate with their law enforcement officials involved

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:50 AM
Author: guy who gets it(donny)


the fact that he is grasping at stuff like this is pure support for their Fake News label

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:50 AM
Author: calishitlawguru

The ones who make good money are. There are tons of chiros out there that have no idea what they are doing and make 40-50K a year. I have chiros begging me for business all the time.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:50 AM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


good school?

no indication she was at the top of her class, either. she could have barely eked into the bottom of the top 10% at a ttt by taking bullshit seminars for 2L/3L.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:49 AM
Author: t bone(ggtp)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:49 AM
Author: Buck \"The Club\" Paulette



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:49 AM
Author: t bone(ggtp)


we have a treaty in place to deal with criminal matters between russia and us, present the evidence through those channels and we'll go through the procedures. but we also expect you to consider russian criminals in the us like some tax evader guy who was funneling money to hillary clinton.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:49 AM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


doc is a jew, right?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:49 AM
Author: BOOM

https://www.wnct.com/national/teen-might-be-first-person-on-mars/1305495445

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:49 AM
Author: honiara

"libs"
"decent"

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:49 AM
Author: beckersted.

For a small handful of poasters, that is the default.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:49 AM
Author: JFC

well-established she is cuck

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:49 AM
Author: ....::::..::..,,....,........,..,,,,,.

Is pretty much every Chiro already hooked in with a lawyer in SoCal?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:48 AM
Author: :D(5000 mcg B12/wk, 150 mcg iodine/day, 250 mg algal DHA-EPA/day)


http://xoxohth.com/thread.php?thread_id=3710655&mc=121&forum_id=2

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:48 AM
Author: typical lib pundit

Who cares that children are starving in the U.K. Libs needed to get their rage out, so well worth every penny

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:48 AM
Author: cannon

Lmao

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:48 AM
Author: boner police?



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:48 AM
Author: .,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DO3Q-SxX0AACRXd.jpg:large

SOLVED: the mystery of the eaten Vanderbilt Law Library volumes...

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:48 AM
Author: scholarship community account

What indication is there that she was picked for any other reason than merit? She clerked for Srinivasan on the DC circuit and graduated top of her class at a good school. Unless it’s your position that no minority ever can achieve a scotus clerkship on merit.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:48 AM
Author: .....;;,,.........;.;.;.;.,;,;,;.;.;,;

A true autist knows that counting reps and "best times" is how to make solo training into a reptile brained competitive endeavor. There was a great article on slate a while back about how this (clearly autistic) cyclist downloaded strava and became obsessed with keeping the best times on all the climbs in her city. Just do that.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:47 AM
Author: grand arbre

Are you counting the "bin" prefix?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:47 AM
Author: slimp

hilarious how much absurdist parody has turned into mainstream liberal dogma.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R79yYo2aOZs

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:47 AM
Author: boner police?



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:47 AM
Author: smell the glove

Nah, that's not Russian -- he's not saying "Das Svedanya," he's saying "Dat's sweet on ya."

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:47 AM
Author: DrakeMallard(Let's get dangerous)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:47 AM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:46 AM
Author: Taylor Swift is not a hobby she is a lifestyle

There's no gold fringe on those American flags. This is true America, folks.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:46 AM
Author: calishitlawguru

There is no such thing as prestigious chiropractors. They only make good money because they do PI.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:46 AM
Author: grand arbre

(Amy Coney Barrett)

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:46 AM
Author: .,.,...,;..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::,.,.,:,,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

burrito farts FTW

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:46 AM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


https://www.tennisworldusa.org/tennis/news/Roger_Federer/57794/roger-federer-and-wife-mirka-enjoy-holidays-in-ibiza/

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:46 AM
Author: JFC

clerked for xo sri & xo thapar...

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:45 AM
Author: calishitlawguru

Nah, my client is a super cool guy. One of my best clients ever. He treated without missing any appointments, was appreciative with the settlement, never called me with questions, and told all his friends about me. We shot the shit in Spanish and drank some beers on my coach for a bit during the party.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:45 AM
Author: grand arbre



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:45 AM
Author: Sir Incelot

“An insider’s Guide to Clerkships”

Step 1: Be a black female

Step 2: ???

Step 3: Get Sotomayor Clerkship

Step 4: Collect dat Big Law Bonus and serve as token firm minority

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:45 AM
Author: BOOM

180

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:45 AM
Author: slimp



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:45 AM
Author: Yours For The Revolution(Pederastrian)


missed it. what did he say?


(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:45 AM
Author: Taylor Swift is not a hobby she is a lifestyle



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:45 AM
Author: ESL Wilbur(Short Pride World Wide)


lol at the filename.

I thought this thing was going to be like a Macy's parade balloon

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:45 AM
Author: *A poaster\'s wounded pride*

It's literally Trump and Putin vs FBI/shadow DOJ. What a time to be alive.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:44 AM
Author: Yours For The Revolution(Pederastrian)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:44 AM
Author: loans originated on or after July 1, 2018,

So suddenly got on board with tax cuts, the religious right, deregulation for business and the environment, anti-abortion judges, the end of public section unions, etc.?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:44 AM
Author: t bone(ggtp)


pretty clever response tbf

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:44 AM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


https://www.atpworldtour.com/en/news/mike-bryan-no-1-atp-doubles-rankings-2018

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:44 AM
Author: Bedroom Bully(All poasts are performance art )


No you were just young and clueless

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:44 AM
Author: ,.,.,.,..,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,.

https://media.breitbart.com/media/2018/07/Trump-Small.png

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:43 AM
Author: slimp



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:43 AM
Author: boner police?



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:43 AM
Author: DrakeMallard(Let's get dangerous)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:43 AM
Author: typical lib pundit



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:43 AM
Author: boner police?



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:43 AM
Author: typical lib pundit

Go on...

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:43 AM
Author: goi toy

It's almost like the expertise of others can help you achieve yours goals even if you're not a professional athlete

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:43 AM
Author: Bedroom Bully(All poasts are performance art )


I'm not exactly an expert on foreign policy but I am an expert on knowing a systemically racist patriarchy when I see one

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:43 AM
Author: :D(5000 mcg B12/wk, 150 mcg iodine/day, 250 mg algal DHA-EPA/day)


I believe Guamians are allowed to leave their homes.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:42 AM
Author: Progression to the Mean(Dork Enlightenment)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:42 AM
Author: MoreDoughHi

fuck u op

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:42 AM
Author: cannon

Putin calling Mueller's bluff on the indicted Russian officials

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:42 AM
Author: Boichester United

"We ran a brilliant campaign, and that's why I'm President."

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:42 AM
Author: DrakeMallard(Let's get dangerous)


TRUMP: "I would rather take a political risk in pursuit of peace than risk peace in pursuit of politics."

Libs: NUCLEAR WAR NOW! CAN'T FORGIVE FOR LETTING SHE LOSE!

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:42 AM
Author: MoreDoughHi

annapolis

key west

jupiter

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:42 AM
Author: slimp



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:42 AM
Author: Sir Incelot

Or PR, considering her heritage?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:42 AM
Author: ESL TM..,..;;.

lolno

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:41 AM
Author: ESL Wilbur(Short Pride World Wide)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:41 AM
Author: HoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:41 AM
Author: Sir Incelot

Jews realize that if they are ostracized by the Dems, then they have nowhere else to go (other than the trains).

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:41 AM
Author: t bone(ggtp)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:41 AM
Author: BOOM



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:41 AM
Author: Sotomayor McCheese

I'm from La Jolla.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:41 AM
Author: slimp

not sure her chambers are such a hub of activity that remedial measures are necessary.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:41 AM
Author: Sexually frustrated male poasting into the void



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:41 AM
Author: ESL TM..,..;;.



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:41 AM
Author: BOOM

Is this some sort of a joke?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:40 AM
Author: Sir Incelot



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:40 AM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


thapar was that desperate for clerks he got this thing?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:40 AM
Author: HoldUp.(I Now Live as a Gay Man)



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:40 AM
Author: MoreDoughHi

then halford will be dale jr.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:40 AM
Author: ESL Wilbur(Short Pride World Wide)


seems to be eating well....

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:40 AM
Author: *A poaster\'s wounded pride*

Trump is incredible. Everything about him defies convention. Truly an honor to be alive in 2018 as a witness.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:40 AM
Author: Versace Nigga Fuck Piece (No L\'s)(Ethical Boihole Consumption)


mazel tov

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:40 AM
Author: Thanks Mario! But our partner is in another castle( )


jfc.

But WHY are political candidates asked about Israel and never, say, Guam (which is an actual US territory)?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:39 AM
Author: typical lib pundit

Feel bad for the other clerks who will have to work that much harder to pick up the work for her - and for this clerk as well

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:39 AM
Author: BOOM



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:39 AM
Author: Djavid Ben Gurion, FOUR TIMES Champ of Wimbledon(*)


the biggest knock against her is that she's been dominated any time she gets good competition. prime henin utterly dominated her.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:39 AM
Author: Sir Incelot

If it walks like a duck...

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:39 AM
Author: Such anathema to us!(as The Americans)


"othered"

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: July 16th, 2018 11:39 AM
Author: ESL TM..,..;;.

Lib media: "Omg, so unbecoming of the POTUS. Doesn't matter if it is true, no one is supposed to say that! If Hillary Clinton was the first female POTUS then this wouldn't happen!"

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)